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Reproduction, Pregnancy, and Development

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Presentation on theme: "Reproduction, Pregnancy, and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reproduction, Pregnancy, and Development
Chapter 18 Sections 1, 2, & 3

2 The Female Reproductive System

3 Objectives State the role of the female reproductive system.
Describe the function of each of the organs of the female reproductive system. Describe the changes in the body during the menstrual cycle. Summarize 4 problems that can occur with the female reproductive system. List five things a female can do to keep her reproductive system healthy.

4 When Does Puberty Begin & What Happens To The Body?
Begins between ages 10-12 Develop arm pit & pubic hair Hips widen Breasts grow Menstrual cycle begins Ovaries begin producing estrogen & progesterone

5 What Is The Function Of The Female Reproductive System?
To Make Eggs & To Provide A Place To Support & Nourish A Developing Human

6 Key Vocabulary Words & Definitions
Sperm: the sex cell that is produced by the testes and that is needed to fertilize an egg. Fertilization: the process by which a sperm and an egg and their genetic material join to create a new human life. Egg (ovum): the sex cell that is produced by the ovaries and that can be fertilized by sperm.

7 How The Female Reproductive System Works

8 The Female Reproductive System Is Made Up Of Internal & External Organs

9 Path Of The Egg

10 What Do The Ovaries Do & Where Are They Found?
Produces eggs & the hormones estrogen & progesterone Almond shaped Stores & releases a mature egg once per month - ovulation Found deep in the pelvic area

11 What Are Eggs or Ovum? The sex cells that mature in the ovaries & can be fertilized by the sperm. Females are born with hundreds of thousands of immature eggs; a mature egg can only be fertilized for 24 hours. Ovulation – the release of an egg from the ovary (once per month)

12 What Are The Female Hormones?
Estrogen: Causes the reproductive organs to mature into their adult shape Causes the growth of pubic & underarm hair Helps strengthen the bones Estrogen & Progesterone: Regulates the monthly release of an egg & Prepares the body for pregnancy.

13 What Do The Fallopian Tubes &Fimbria Do?
Transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus Where fertilization takes place It’s the size of a strand of spaghetti Fimbria Flowerlike ends of the Fallopian Tubes helps move the egg from the ovary into the Fallopian Tube

14 What Does The Uterus Do? Provides a place to support a developing human. Is found on the top of the vagina between the bladder and the rectum. A fertilized egg will implant itself in the uterine lining & in develop 9 months; Normal size = women’s fist; When pregnant, it expands to the size of a medium watermelon

15 What Is The Cervix? Barrier separating the vagina from uterus;
Normally very hard Dilates to 10 centimeters & softens just before birth 

16 What Is The Vagina & What Does It Do?
Runs from the lower end of the uterus to the outside of the body. Receives sperm during reproduction Allows menstrual flow to exit the body Is the part of the birth canal through which the baby is delivered.

17 What Are The Exterior Parts Of The Female Reproductive System?
Labia Majora The outer lips of the vagina; Provide cushion – similar to that of the scrotum on the male Labia Minora Inner lips; Swell & deepen in color during sexual stimulation

18 What Are The Exterior Parts Of The Female Reproductive System?
Clitoris Very sensitive Covered by a hood of skin; Purpose is sexual stimulation Hymen Thin membrane over the vaginal opening; Will tear during 1st time sexual intercourse

19 What Are The Three Openings In The Female Reproductive Area?
Urinary Opening Expels urine Anus Expels feces Vaginal Opening Receives penis during sex Expels menstrual fluid Birth canal opening

20 What Is The Menstrual Cycle?
Hormonal & physical changes in the body that prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy.

21 How Does The Menstrual Cycle Work?
Rising estrogen levels cause the uterine lining to thicken Increasing levels of the follicle stimulating & luteinizing hormones cause the maturation & release of an egg - Ovulation.

22 Menstrual Cycle Continued
After ovulation, the uterine lining continues to thicken. This helps nourish & support the baby during pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the uterine lining breaks down & discharges through the vagina – Menstruation. Estrogen & progesterone levels rapidly decrease. Females use tampons or sanitary napkins to absorb the blood.

23 23

24 The Menstrual Cycle (Preparing for Pregnancy)
Days 22-28 Uterine lining is complete Days 1-7 Uterine Lining Sheds Days 3-7 Menstruation Days 8-15 Most fertile time Uterus lining begins to thicken Days 16-21 Uterine lining thickens Days 13-15 Ovulation Occurs

25 Why Does The Menstrual Cycle Vary?
Environmental factors such as stress, diet, travel, exercise, weight gain or loss, & illness can influence the timing of the females cycle.

26 Problems Of The Female Reproductive System

27 Problem What is it? Symptoms Treatment Cystitis Inflammation of the urinary bladder Burning during urination, strong-smelling urine, fever, or blood in urine. Antibiotics prescribed by doctor. Vaginitis Vaginal infection in the vaginal area from fungus, bacteria protozoa, or STD. Irritation or itching around the vagina, vaginal secretion of unusual color or unpleasant odor. Over the counter vaginal cream or prescription by the doctor. Menstrual cramps Cramps due to prostaglandin (hormone like substance) production during menstruation. Contractions of uterine muscles, lower abdominal pain, & occasional nausea and vomiting. Over the counter medication & a warm bath; further treatment provided by the doctor. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Mental & physical changes related to menstrual cycle, but not completely understood Irritability, mood swings, depression, abdominal bloating, & breast tenderness. Determined by doctor Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) Poisoning of the body from bacterial toxins; often related to tampon use Fever, chills, weakness, & rash on palms of hand Antibiotics & immediate medical treatments. Endometriosis Can lead to infertility Growth of tissue from uterine lining outside the uterus Severe cramping and pain in lower abdominal area or pelvis Determined by a doctor; hormone therapy or surgery may be required. Ovarian Cyst Failure of follicle in ovary to rupture & release an egg; may also be from growth of cancer Pain in lower abdomen or pelvis for a month Determined by a doctor; cysts often go away on their own but sometimes require surgery Cervical cancer Abnormal division of cell s in the cervix; may also be from an STD Vaginal bleeding, discharge, or pelvic pain, may not be any symptoms Surgery, radiation, &/ or chemotherapy.

28 What Are 7 Ways To Keep Healthy?
Exercise regularly & maintain a balanced diet. Gently wash the genital area everyday with warm water & mild soap. Do not use feminine hygiene spray or powders. Wipe the vaginal opening from front to back after urination. Change sanitary napkins or tampons every 4-6 hours when menstruating. Avoid wearing tight clothing that can cause discomfort. Do a breast self exam each month. Have an annual pelvic exam with a doctor.

29 What Is Cervical Dysplasia & Carcinoma-In-Situ?
Abnormalities are on the surface lining (or "skin") of the cervix. Cervical dysplasia is pre-cancerous, not cancer.  Mild dysplasia often goes away without any treatment Severe dysplasia can become invasive cancer if not treated. 

30 What Are The Parts Of the Breast & What Is Its Purpose?
Fatty Tissue The more fatty tissue the larger the breast; Where breast cancer usually occurs Milk Glands Produce milk Milk Ducts Moves milk from the milk gland to the nipple Nipple Feeds the baby Areola Dark shade of skin that surrounds the nipple Breast Have 2 Purposes Breast feeding & Sexual pleasure

31 How Do You Perform A Monthly Breast Self Exam (BSE)?
1 out of 9 women will get breast cancer

32 Early Detection Of Breast Cancer
The chance is higher if it runs in the family When performing a self-exam, feel for unusual lumps & thickening under the skin Women over 40 need to begin getting regular Mammograms

33 What Is A Mammogram? A procedure or test for breast cancer.
    A procedure or test for breast cancer. Normal Fatty Breast Tissue             Normal Dense Breast Tissue

34 Mastectomy specimen containing a very large cancer of the breast
Breast cancer (dark pink) in & around a lymph node (purple). Breast cancer can metastasize (spread) to the nearby lymph nodes, usually those under the arm. That is why surgery for breast cancer always involves some type of surgery for the glands under the arm. Once cancer enters the lymph nodes, it can spread throughout the body.

35 Breast Cancer Patient with advanced local-regional recurrence of breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass

36 Mastectomy

37 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases
You & your partner should be examined before considering intercourse – check for STDs & HIV/AIDS Use condoms Limit the number of sexual partners Know the signs of problems in the male & female reproductive system

38 What Is Vaginal Irritation & How Do You Prevent It?
A redness, itching, or slight discomfort around the opening of the vagina. Prevention Regular bathing, Wear loose cotton clothes & cotton underwear, Avoid scented products that touch skin in the genital area, & Avoid pantyhose, tight jeans, & wet clothes

39 What Are Menstrual Cramps & How Can You Relieve Them?
Caused by contractions of the uterine muscles Relief Take a warm bath, Eat a balanced diet, Exercise regularly, Use anti-inflammatory drugs Reduce caffeine & sugar intake

40 What Is Infertility & What Are The Causes?
The inability to get pregnant Causes Can Be Genetic Endometriosis or STDs

41 What Is A Pelvic Exam? A breast & genital exam, plus a Pap smear.

42 What Is A Pap Smear? Examines the cells of the cervix to detect & prevent cervical cancer.

43 Section 18.2 Review

44 Key Terms Define Ovaries
The female reproductive organs that produce eggs & the hormones estrogen & progesterone What is “the female reproductive organ that provides a place to support a human being?” The Uterus

45 Key Ideas What is the purpose of the female reproductive system?
To produce eggs & provide a place to support & nourish a developing human What is the female reproductive organ that transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus? The Fallopian Tube

46 Key Ideas What is the path of the egg through the female reproductive system? Ovary Fallopian Tube The Uterus Exits the Vagina if unfertilized

47 Key Ideas What are the changes that occur in the female reproductive during the menstrual cycle? Menstruation Ovulation Thickening of the uterine lining

48 Key Ideas What are the symptoms of menstrual cramps?
Contractions of uterine muscles Lower abdominal pain Occasional nausea & vomiting What are the symptoms of vaginitis? Irritation or itching around the vagina Vaginal discharge

49 What Are 7 Ways To Keep Healthy?
Exercise & eat a balanced diet Gently wash the genital area everyday with warm water & mild soap - Do not use feminine hygiene spray or powders Wipe the vaginal opening from front to back Change sanitary napkins or tampons every 4-6 hours Avoid wearing tight clothing Do a breast self exam each month Have an annual pelvic exam with a doctor

50 Critical Thinking What can a girl do if she has severe menstrual cramps? Take an anti-inflammatory drug (Midol, Tylenol, Aleve, Advil…) Take a warm bath See a doctor of severe

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