3Objectives State the role of the female reproductive system. Describe the function of each of the organs of the female reproductive system.Describe the changes in the body during the menstrual cycle.Summarize 4 problems that can occur with the female reproductive system.List five things a female can do to keep her reproductive system healthy.
4When Does Puberty Begin & What Happens To The Body? Begins between ages 10-12Develop arm pit & pubic hairHips widenBreasts growMenstrual cycle beginsOvaries begin producing estrogen & progesterone
5What Is The Function Of The Female Reproductive System? To Make Eggs & To Provide A Place To Support & Nourish A Developing Human
6Key Vocabulary Words & Definitions Sperm: the sex cell that is produced by the testes and that is needed to fertilize an egg.Fertilization: the process by which a sperm and an egg and their genetic material join to create a new human life.Egg (ovum): the sex cell that is produced by the ovaries and that can be fertilized by sperm.
10What Do The Ovaries Do & Where Are They Found? Produces eggs & the hormones estrogen & progesteroneAlmond shapedStores & releases a mature egg once per month - ovulationFound deep in the pelvic area
11What Are Eggs or Ovum?The sex cells that mature in the ovaries & can be fertilized by the sperm.Females are born with hundreds of thousands of immature eggs; a mature egg can only be fertilized for 24 hours.Ovulation – the release of an egg from the ovary (once per month)
12What Are The Female Hormones? Estrogen:Causes the reproductive organs to mature into their adult shapeCauses the growth of pubic & underarm hairHelps strengthen the bonesEstrogen & Progesterone:Regulates the monthly release of an egg &Prepares the body for pregnancy.
13What Do The Fallopian Tubes &Fimbria Do? Transports the egg from the ovary to the uterusWhere fertilization takes placeIt’s the size of a strand of spaghettiFimbriaFlowerlike ends of the Fallopian Tubes helps move the egg from the ovary into the Fallopian Tube
14What Does The Uterus Do?Provides a place to support a developing human.Is found on the top of the vagina between the bladder and the rectum.A fertilized egg will implant itself in the uterine lining & in develop 9 months;Normal size = women’s fist;When pregnant, it expands to the size of a medium watermelon
15What Is The Cervix? Barrier separating the vagina from uterus; Normally very hardDilates to 10 centimeters & softens just before birth
16What Is The Vagina & What Does It Do? Runs from the lower end of the uterus to the outside of the body.Receives sperm during reproductionAllows menstrual flow to exit the bodyIs the part of the birth canal through which the baby is delivered.
17What Are The Exterior Parts Of The Female Reproductive System? Labia MajoraThe outer lips of the vagina;Provide cushion – similar to that of the scrotum on the maleLabia MinoraInner lips;Swell & deepen in color during sexual stimulation
18What Are The Exterior Parts Of The Female Reproductive System? ClitorisVery sensitiveCovered by a hood of skin;Purpose is sexual stimulationHymenThin membrane over the vaginal opening;Will tear during 1st time sexual intercourse
19What Are The Three Openings In The Female Reproductive Area? Urinary OpeningExpels urineAnusExpels fecesVaginal OpeningReceives penis during sexExpels menstrual fluidBirth canal opening
20What Is The Menstrual Cycle? Hormonal & physical changesin the body that preparethe uterine lining for pregnancy.
21How Does The Menstrual Cycle Work? Rising estrogen levels cause the uterine lining to thickenIncreasing levels of the follicle stimulating & luteinizing hormones cause the maturation & release of an egg - Ovulation.
22Menstrual Cycle Continued After ovulation, the uterine lining continues to thicken.This helps nourish & support the baby during pregnancy.If pregnancy does not occur, the uterine lining breaks down & discharges through the vagina – Menstruation. Estrogen & progesterone levels rapidly decrease.Females use tampons or sanitary napkins to absorb the blood.
27ProblemWhat is it?SymptomsTreatmentCystitisInflammation of the urinary bladderBurning during urination, strong-smelling urine, fever, or blood in urine.Antibiotics prescribed by doctor.VaginitisVaginal infection in the vaginal area from fungus, bacteria protozoa, or STD.Irritation or itching around the vagina, vaginal secretion of unusual color or unpleasant odor.Over the counter vaginal cream or prescription by the doctor.Menstrual crampsCramps due to prostaglandin (hormone like substance) production during menstruation.Contractions of uterine muscles, lower abdominal pain, & occasional nausea and vomiting.Over the counter medication & a warm bath; further treatment provided by the doctor.Premenstrual syndrome(PMS)Mental & physical changes related to menstrual cycle, but not completely understoodIrritability, mood swings, depression, abdominal bloating, & breast tenderness.Determined by doctorToxic shock syndrome(TSS)Poisoning of the body from bacterial toxins; often related to tampon useFever, chills, weakness, & rash on palms of handAntibiotics & immediate medical treatments.EndometriosisCan lead to infertilityGrowth of tissue from uterine lining outside the uterusSevere cramping and pain in lower abdominal area or pelvisDetermined by a doctor; hormone therapy or surgery may be required.Ovarian CystFailure of follicle in ovary to rupture & release an egg; may also be from growth of cancerPain in lower abdomen or pelvis for a monthDetermined by a doctor; cysts often go away on their own but sometimes require surgeryCervical cancerAbnormal division of cell s in the cervix; may also be from an STDVaginal bleeding, discharge, or pelvic pain, may not be any symptomsSurgery, radiation, &/ or chemotherapy.
28What Are 7 Ways To Keep Healthy? Exercise regularly & maintain a balanced diet.Gently wash the genital area everyday with warm water & mild soap. Do not use feminine hygiene spray or powders.Wipe the vaginal opening from front to back after urination.Change sanitary napkins or tampons every 4-6 hours when menstruating.Avoid wearing tight clothing that can cause discomfort.Do a breast self exam each month.Have an annual pelvic exam with a doctor.
29What Is Cervical Dysplasia & Carcinoma-In-Situ? Abnormalities are on the surface lining (or "skin") of the cervix.Cervical dysplasia is pre-cancerous, not cancer. Mild dysplasia often goes away without any treatmentSevere dysplasia can become invasive cancer if not treated.
30What Are The Parts Of the Breast & What Is Its Purpose? Fatty Tissue The more fatty tissue the larger the breast; Where breast cancer usually occursMilk Glands Produce milkMilk Ducts Moves milk from the milk gland to the nippleNipple Feeds the babyAreola Dark shade of skin that surrounds the nippleBreast Have 2 PurposesBreast feeding &Sexual pleasure
31How Do You Perform A Monthly Breast Self Exam (BSE)? 1 out of 9 women will get breast cancer
32Early Detection Of Breast Cancer The chance is higher if it runs in the familyWhen performing a self-exam, feel for unusual lumps & thickening under the skinWomen over 40 need to begin getting regular Mammograms
33What Is A Mammogram? A procedure or test for breast cancer. A procedure or test for breast cancer.Normal Fatty Breast TissueNormal Dense Breast Tissue
34Mastectomy specimen containing a very large cancer of the breast Breast cancer (dark pink) in & around a lymph node (purple).Breast cancer can metastasize (spread) to the nearby lymph nodes, usually those under the arm. That is why surgery for breast cancer always involves some type of surgery for the glands under the arm. Once cancer enters the lymph nodes, it can spread throughout the body.
35Breast CancerPatient with advanced local-regional recurrence of breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
37Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases You & your partner should be examined before considering intercourse – check for STDs & HIV/AIDSUse condomsLimit the number of sexual partnersKnow the signs of problems in the male & female reproductive system
38What Is Vaginal Irritation & How Do You Prevent It? A redness, itching, or slight discomfort around the opening of the vagina.PreventionRegular bathing,Wear loose cotton clothes & cotton underwear,Avoid scented products that touch skin in the genital area, &Avoid pantyhose, tight jeans, & wet clothes
39What Are Menstrual Cramps & How Can You Relieve Them? Caused by contractions of the uterine musclesReliefTake a warm bath,Eat a balanced diet,Exercise regularly,Use anti-inflammatory drugsReduce caffeine & sugar intake
40What Is Infertility & What Are The Causes? The inability to get pregnantCauses Can BeGeneticEndometriosis orSTDs
41What Is A Pelvic Exam?A breast & genital exam, plus a Pap smear.
42What Is A Pap Smear?Examines the cells of the cervix to detect & prevent cervical cancer.
44Key Terms Define Ovaries The female reproductive organs that produce eggs & the hormones estrogen & progesteroneWhat is “the female reproductive organ that provides a place to support a human being?”The Uterus
45Key Ideas What is the purpose of the female reproductive system? To produce eggs & provide a place to support & nourish a developing humanWhat is the female reproductive organ that transports the egg from the ovary to the uterus?The Fallopian Tube
46Key IdeasWhat is the path of the egg through the female reproductive system?OvaryFallopian TubeThe UterusExits the Vagina if unfertilized
47Key IdeasWhat are the changes that occur in the female reproductive during the menstrual cycle?MenstruationOvulationThickening of the uterine lining
48Key Ideas What are the symptoms of menstrual cramps? Contractions of uterine musclesLower abdominal painOccasional nausea & vomitingWhat are the symptoms of vaginitis?Irritation or itching around the vaginaVaginal discharge
49What Are 7 Ways To Keep Healthy? Exercise & eat a balanced dietGently wash the genital area everyday with warm water & mild soap- Do not use feminine hygiene spray or powdersWipe the vaginal opening from front to backChange sanitary napkins or tampons every 4-6 hoursAvoid wearing tight clothingDo a breast self exam each monthHave an annual pelvic exam with a doctor
50Critical ThinkingWhat can a girl do if she has severe menstrual cramps?Take an anti-inflammatory drug (Midol, Tylenol, Aleve, Advil…)Take a warm bathSee a doctor of severe