GELS At the most basic level, gels are active ingredients suspended in a base of water and a thickening agent. Gels tend to be lighter and less moisturizing than creams or lotions, making them a suitable option for those with oily or acne-prone skin.
GELS A gel is made from water and a thickening agent. Other ingredients are added for various purposes, depending on what the gel is used for. Gels are usually either clear or semi-opaque.
GELS Advantages of gells: - Not toxic; - Does not irritate the skin; - Softens and moisturizes the skin; Disadvantages: - Leaves the skin feeling stickiness; - may dry out, so for increasing the viscosity, bioavailability and stability of gels the glycerol (10%), polyethylene glycol is added.
Natural polysaccharides are extracted from plants or algae and are to be found in large quantities in: Carrageen (extracted from the seaweed Carrageen) Alginates (extracted from different algae) Cellulose Gum (extracted from wood fibre) Xanthan Gum (produced by Xanthomonas compestris bacteria through the fermentation of glucose - no bacteria are left in the finished product)
Guar gum is a natural hydrocolloid that is obtained from the ground endosperm of the guar plant.
Guar gum is basically a polysaccharide (a long chain of sugars) made of the sugars, galactose and mannose. Guar gum is white to off white powder,. Being odorless, guar gum can be easily and profusely used in food materials.
This natural laxative (organic guar gum) has the capacity to prevent diarrhea. Besides being a natural laxative, organic guar gum adds no calorie to the body of consumer, as the soluble fiber content in organic guar gum is never digested in the body of consumer.
Hydroxyethylcellulose is a non-ionic, water soluble polymer used as a thickening agent for aqueous cosmetic and personal care formulations. It will produce crystal clear gel products and thicken the aqueous phase of cosmetic emulsions. It can be also be used to efficiently thicken shampoos, body washes and shower gels.
Carbopol polymers are polymers of acrylic acid cross-linked with polyalkenyl ethers or divinyl glycol. They are produced from primary polymer particles of about 0.2 to 6.0 micron average diameter. The flocculated agglomerates cannot be broken into the ultimate particles when produced. Each particle can be viewed as a network structure of polymer chains interconnected via cross-linking 1.
GELS A gel is used in products where it is desirable to have little or no fats or oils and is best mixed using a water-based medium. If a small amount of fat is required in the gel, up to 5% vegetable oil can be added.
GELS Gels are also able to carry an essential oil content of up to a maximum of 5%. Too much of either of these ingredients can result in an uneven distribution in the gel. The thicker the gel is, the more vegetable or essential oil it will be able to carry.
GELS The thickening agents retain moisture, protect the skin and can also be astringent. They are not absorbed by the skin. Which thickening agents to use in the manufacture of gels is a question of taste, or rather of 'feeling' i.e. how the gel feels when applied to the skin and then how it feels when its moisture has evaporated. These thickening agents can either be wholly synthetic, such as a polymer or wholly natural, such as a polysaccharide.
Technology: Preparation of raw materials; Preparation of the gel (swelling a thickening agent with water); Adding active components; Packing, packaging, labeling the finished product.