Complex Carbohydrates Are the polysaccharides… And includes Starches Cellulose Gums Pectins
Starches Are the most abundant carbohydrate Composed of glucose Found in rice, corn, potatoes, oats, rye, soy and tapioca Is natures reserve carbohydrate supply.
Plants produce starch in packets called granules Granules are not soluble in cold water Rice has the smallest granule Potatoes have the largest
Cellulose Polysaccharides are made from large amounts of glucose Some animals – cows, sheep, termites – can use cellulose as a food source. Humans cannot. We don’t have the enzymes to break it down. We call it fiber. It adds bulk to our waste.
Cellulose forms the rigid structure of plants. The strings in celery The membranes surrounding kernels of corn …
Gums and Pectins Generally not available to the home cook. Gums are extracted from plants and are soluble in water Karaya gum, gum agar, carageenan, algin Thicken, stabilize, trap color and flavor. Salad dressings, gummy candies, gravies etc.
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Pectin Naturally occurs in fruit Especially in apples When sugar is added – pectin dehydrates and creates a thickened structure – A.k.a. jam!
Carbohydrate Functions in Food Prep Provide Structure Flour provides the majority of the structure in baked goods Ability to thicken when heated… …and to gel when cooled Allows starch to take and hold many shapes
Bind The ability to hold two things together –like holding batter to vegetables & meat during deep-frying The gum, carageenan, stabilizes cocoa in milk so that the cocoa does not settle out. Also used in ice cream & other dairy products.
Thicken Starch is usually combined with liquids in food preparation Must first be heated to break molecular bonds
Starch granules swell as they are heated – this is when they will hold the most water and have the most thickening power. (the starch in instant pudding has been pre-gelatinized - this allows it to gel/set at the temperature of cold milk)
Starch molecules are very large in comparison to water molecules – and they have spaces between them – like a tumbleweed. They will pick up things that cross their path – like water.
The more water that “snuggles” into the molecule – the thicker the mixture will become Salt & Sugar weaken starches thickening power –small amounts won’t have too much effect.
Were you listening? Name 2 of the four types of complex carbohydrates.
Give an example of a specific food For the type of carbohydrate you listed.
Name the three functions that carbohydrates perform in preparing foods.
A. Starch “packets” are called…. B. What needs to be added to make them open up and accept water?
What would happen if flour or cornstarch was put directly into hot liquid?