3Complex Carbohydrates Are the polysaccharides…And includesStarchesCelluloseGumsPectins
4Starches Are the most abundant carbohydrate Composed of glucose Found in rice, corn, potatoes, oats, rye, soy and tapiocaIs natures reserve carbohydrate supply.
5Plants produce starch in packets called granules Granules are not soluble in cold waterRice has the smallest granulePotatoes have the largest
6Cellulose Polysaccharides are made from large amounts of glucose Some animals – cows, sheep, termites – can use cellulose as a food source.Humans cannot. We don’t have the enzymes to break it down. We call it fiber. It adds bulk to our waste.
7Cellulose forms the rigid structure of plants. The strings in celeryThe membranes surrounding kernels of corn …
9Gums and Pectins Generally not available to the home cook. Gums are extracted from plants and are soluble in waterKaraya gum, gum agar, carageenan, alginThicken, stabilize, trap color and flavor.Salad dressings, gummy candies, gravies etc.
11Pectin Naturally occurs in fruit Especially in apples When sugar is added – pectin dehydrates and creates a thickened structure –A.k.a. jam!
12Carbohydrate Functions in Food Prep Provide StructureFlour provides the majority of the structure in baked goodsAbility to thicken when heated……and to gel when cooledAllows starch to take and hold many shapes
13BindThe ability to hold two things together –like holding batter to vegetables & meat during deep-fryingThe gum, carageenan, stabilizes cocoa in milk so that the cocoa does not settle out. Also used in ice cream & other dairy products.
14Thicken Starch is usually combined with liquids in food preparation Must first be heated to break molecular bonds
15Starch granules swell as they are heated – this is when they will hold the most water and have the most thickening power.(the starch in instant pudding has been pre-gelatinized - this allows it to gel/set at the temperature of cold milk)
16Starch molecules are very large in comparison to water molecules – and they have spaces between them – like a tumbleweed.They will pick upthings that cross theirpath – like water.
17The more water that “snuggles” into the molecule – the thicker the mixture will become Salt & Sugar weakenstarches thickeningpower –small amountswon’t have too mucheffect.
18Were you listening?Name 2 of the four types of complex carbohydrates.
19Give an example of a specific food For the type of carbohydrate you listed.
20Name the three functions that carbohydrates perform in preparing foods.
21A. Starch “packets” are called…. B. What needs to be added to make them open up and accept water?
22What would happen if flour or cornstarch was put directly into hot liquid?