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COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES: STARCHES, CELLULOSE, GUMS AND PECTINS.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES: STARCHES, CELLULOSE, GUMS AND PECTINS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES: STARCHES, CELLULOSE, GUMS AND PECTINS

3 FOODS RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES SOME CARBOHYDRATES ARE SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES SOME CARBOHYDRATES ARE SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES MANY ARE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES MANY ARE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES CALLED POLYSACCHARIDES BECAUSE THEY ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS (SACCAHARIDES) CALLED POLYSACCHARIDES BECAUSE THEY ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS (SACCAHARIDES) POYSACCHARIDES ARE ALSO CALLED MACROMOLECULES BECAUSE THEY CONTAINS HUNDREDS OR THOUSANDS OF ATOMS EACH POYSACCHARIDES ARE ALSO CALLED MACROMOLECULES BECAUSE THEY CONTAINS HUNDREDS OR THOUSANDS OF ATOMS EACH

4 TYPES OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES STARCHES STARCHES CELLULOSE CELLULOSE GUMS GUMS PECTINS PECTINS

5 STARCHES MOST ABUBDANT IN THE U.S. DIET MOST ABUBDANT IN THE U.S. DIET ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS LINKED IN CHAINS CALLED POLYMERS ARE MADE UP OF MANY SUGAR UNITS LINKED IN CHAINS CALLED POLYMERS COMPOSED OF THE SUGAR GLUCOSE. COMPOSED OF THE SUGAR GLUCOSE. HAS TWO BASIC STRUCTURES HAS TWO BASIC STRUCTURES AMYLOSE – UNITS ARE LINKED IN A LINE (LINEAR) AMYLOSE – UNITS ARE LINKED IN A LINE (LINEAR) AMYLOPECTIN – UNITS ARE BRANCHED AMYLOPECTIN – UNITS ARE BRANCHED

6 STARCHES CONTINUED MOST ARE A MIXTURE OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN MOST ARE A MIXTURE OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN STARCHES COMPOSED MAINLY OF AMYLOPECTIN ARE CALLED WAXY STARCHES STARCHES COMPOSED MAINLY OF AMYLOPECTIN ARE CALLED WAXY STARCHES PLANTS PRODUCE STARCH IN PACKETS CALLED GRANULES THAT ARE NOT SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER PLANTS PRODUCE STARCH IN PACKETS CALLED GRANULES THAT ARE NOT SOLUBLE IN COLD WATER GRANULES ARE A MIXTURES OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN GRANULES ARE A MIXTURES OF AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN THE RATIO DETERMINES HOW STARCHES PERFORM IN FOOD MIXTURES THE RATIO DETERMINES HOW STARCHES PERFORM IN FOOD MIXTURES

7 SOURCES OF STARCH WHEAT FLOUR WHEAT FLOUR BAKED GOODS BAKED GOODS PASTA PASTA RICE RICE CORN CORN POTATOES POTATOES OATS OATS GRAIN OR SEED GRAIN OR SEED

8 CELLULOSE A POLYSACCHARIDE MADE FROM LARGE AMOUNTS OF BETA – D GLUCOSE A POLYSACCHARIDE MADE FROM LARGE AMOUNTS OF BETA – D GLUCOSE SOME ANIMALS AND INSECTS CAN DIGEST BUT HUMANS CANNOT SOME ANIMALS AND INSECTS CAN DIGEST BUT HUMANS CANNOT KNOW AS FIBER IN DIET KNOW AS FIBER IN DIET FORMS THE RIGID STRUCTURE IN PLANTS (STRINGS IN CELERY ND MEMBRANES SURROUNDING CORN KERNELS FORMS THE RIGID STRUCTURE IN PLANTS (STRINGS IN CELERY ND MEMBRANES SURROUNDING CORN KERNELS

9 CARBOHYDRATE GUMS NOT GENERALLY AVAILABLE AT THE GROCERY STORE NOT GENERALLY AVAILABLE AT THE GROCERY STORE GUMS ARE POLYSACCHARIDES THAT ARE SOLUBLE IN WATER AND EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS GUMS ARE POLYSACCHARIDES THAT ARE SOLUBLE IN WATER AND EXTRACTED FROM PLANTS USED TO THICKEN AND STABILIZE MIXTURES AND TRAP COLOR AND FLAVOR USED TO THICKEN AND STABILIZE MIXTURES AND TRAP COLOR AND FLAVOR MOST COMMON IS GUM ARABIC MOST COMMON IS GUM ARABIC SURROUNDS FLAVOR PARTICLES, PROTECTING THEM FROM MOISTURE, ABSORPORBTION, EVAPORATION, OR CHEMICAL OXIDATION SURROUNDS FLAVOR PARTICLES, PROTECTING THEM FROM MOISTURE, ABSORPORBTION, EVAPORATION, OR CHEMICAL OXIDATION COMMONLY USED IN SALAD DRESSINGS AND GUMMY CANDIES COMMONLY USED IN SALAD DRESSINGS AND GUMMY CANDIES

10 PECTIN FOUND IN PLANT CELLS FOUND IN PLANT CELLS MADE OF CHEMICAL DERIVATIVES OF SUGAR CALLED SUGAR ACIDS MADE OF CHEMICAL DERIVATIVES OF SUGAR CALLED SUGAR ACIDS NATURALLY OCCURS IN FRUITS NATURALLY OCCURS IN FRUITS PRODUCES A STRONG GEL PRODUCES A STRONG GEL REMAINS STABLE TO C (212 0 F) REMAINS STABLE TO C (212 0 F) CREATES A THICKENING STRUCTURE CREATES A THICKENING STRUCTURE USED IN JAMS AND JELLIES USED IN JAMS AND JELLIES

11 FUNCTION OF STARCH IN FOOD PREPARATION PROVIDES STRUCTURE PROVIDES STRUCTURE RETAINS SHAPES RETAINS SHAPES RESPONSIBLE FOR TEXTURE RESPONSIBLE FOR TEXTURE BINDS BINDS HOLDS PRODUCTS TOGETHER HOLDS PRODUCTS TOGETHER STABILIZES TO PREVENT SETTLING STABILIZES TO PREVENT SETTLING THICKENS (GELATINIZATION) THICKENS (GELATINIZATION) MOLECULES TAKE UP WATER MOLECULES TAKE UP WATER HYDROGEN BONDS FORM BETWEEN STARCHES AND WATER HYDROGEN BONDS FORM BETWEEN STARCHES AND WATER

12 STRUCTURE MANY BONDS BETWEEN STARCH AND WATER MOLECULES CAN FORM MANY BONDS BETWEEN STARCH AND WATER MOLECULES CAN FORM STARCH MOLECULES ARE LARGE STARCH MOLECULES ARE LARGE SPACES BETWEEN THEIR SUGAR UNITS SPACES BETWEEN THEIR SUGAR UNITS TRAPS OR HOLDS WATER MOLECULES TRAPS OR HOLDS WATER MOLECULES THE MORE WATER THEY HOLD. THE THICKER THE MIXTURE THE MORE WATER THEY HOLD. THE THICKER THE MIXTURE HEAT STRETCHES THE MOLECULES AND ALLOWS THEM TO HOLD MORE WATER HEAT STRETCHES THE MOLECULES AND ALLOWS THEM TO HOLD MORE WATER

13 THICKENING POWER OF COMPEX CARBOHYDRATES TOO MUCH HEAT WILL CAUSE STARCH MOLECULES TO BREAK DOWN AND LOSE THICKENING ABILITY AND STABILITY TOO MUCH HEAT WILL CAUSE STARCH MOLECULES TO BREAK DOWN AND LOSE THICKENING ABILITY AND STABILITY THE PRESENCE OF SALT OR SUGAR ALSO AFFECTS STARCH’S THICKENING ABILITY BECAUSE THEY ARE ALSO POLAR MOLECULES THAT WILL BOND WITH THE WATER THE PRESENCE OF SALT OR SUGAR ALSO AFFECTS STARCH’S THICKENING ABILITY BECAUSE THEY ARE ALSO POLAR MOLECULES THAT WILL BOND WITH THE WATER GUMS AND PECTINS ARE ALSO USED FOR THICKENING FOOD PRODUCTS GUMS AND PECTINS ARE ALSO USED FOR THICKENING FOOD PRODUCTS

14 WHICH STARCH SOURCE IS BEST? IT DEPENDS ON WHAT TYPE OF FOOD PRODUCT OR STARCH-LIQUID MIXTURE IT WILL BE USED IN. REMEMBER THAT THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IS USUALLY FLAVOR.

15 TYPES OF STARCH AND LIQUID MIXTURES SLURRIES – UNCOOKED MIXTURES OF WATER AND STARCH USED IN PROCESSING AND CHEMICAL ALTERATIONS. SLURRIES – UNCOOKED MIXTURES OF WATER AND STARCH USED IN PROCESSING AND CHEMICAL ALTERATIONS. SOLS – THICKENING LIQUIDS THEY ARE POURABLE LIKE BATTER ARE COOKED SOLS LIKE GRAVY SOLS – THICKENING LIQUIDS THEY ARE POURABLE LIKE BATTER ARE COOKED SOLS LIKE GRAVY PASTES – THICKENING MIXTURES THAT HAVE VERY LITTLE FLOW AND CAN BE STIRRED INTO HOT LIQUIDS WITHOUT LUMPING PASTES – THICKENING MIXTURES THAT HAVE VERY LITTLE FLOW AND CAN BE STIRRED INTO HOT LIQUIDS WITHOUT LUMPING GELS – MIXTURES THAT ARE RIGID AND ARE BOUND TOGETHER IN A 3-DIMENSIONAL NETWORK GELS – MIXTURES THAT ARE RIGID AND ARE BOUND TOGETHER IN A 3-DIMENSIONAL NETWORK

16 PROPERTIES There are five properties that food scientists evaluate before selecting a starch for a starch- liquid mixture There are five properties that food scientists evaluate before selecting a starch for a starch- liquid mixture Retrogradation- the firming of a gel during cooling and standing Retrogradation- the firming of a gel during cooling and standing Viscosity- the resistance of a mixture to flow Viscosity- the resistance of a mixture to flow Stability- the ability of a thickening mixture to remain constant over time and temperature changes Stability- the ability of a thickening mixture to remain constant over time and temperature changes Opacity- refers to how much an object blocks light Opacity- refers to how much an object blocks light Texture- the way a product feels to the fingers, tongue, teeth and palate Texture- the way a product feels to the fingers, tongue, teeth and palate

17 HOW DO YOU LIKE YOUR GRAVY? OPAQUE VS. TRANSLUCENT OPAQUE VS. TRANSLUCENT OPAQUE – USE FLOUR FOR THICKENING OPAQUE – USE FLOUR FOR THICKENING TRANSLUCENT – USE CORNSTARCH TRANSLUCENT – USE CORNSTARCH LUMPS OR NO LUMPS LUMPS OR NO LUMPS If you prefer no lumps If you prefer no lumps GRAVY MIXES - may contain modified starches GRAVY MIXES - may contain modified starches COLD WATER PASTE – stir starch and an equal amount of water until smooth before adding to hot mixture COLD WATER PASTE – stir starch and an equal amount of water until smooth before adding to hot mixture STARCH AND FAT – stir starch and an equal amount of heated fat until smooth and then slowly added liquid STARCH AND FAT – stir starch and an equal amount of heated fat until smooth and then slowly added liquid STARCH AND SUGAR – combine starch and sugar thoroughly then add to liquid STARCH AND SUGAR – combine starch and sugar thoroughly then add to liquid

18 NUTRITIONAL IMPACT DIGESTABLE STARCHES DIGESTABLE STARCHES PROVIDE 4 CALORIES OF ENERGY PER GRAM PROVIDE 4 CALORIES OF ENERGY PER GRAM MOST ABUNDANT AND ECONOMICAL SOURCE OF CALORIES MOST ABUNDANT AND ECONOMICAL SOURCE OF CALORIES PROVIDE OVER HALF OF DAILY CALORIES PROVIDE OVER HALF OF DAILY CALORIES CARBS IN THE FORM OF GLUCOSE IS THE ONLY ENERGY SOURCE THE BRAIN CAN USE CARBS IN THE FORM OF GLUCOSE IS THE ONLY ENERGY SOURCE THE BRAIN CAN USE STARCHES AND SUGARS CAN BE EFFICIENTLY CHANGED TO ENERGY STARCHES AND SUGARS CAN BE EFFICIENTLY CHANGED TO ENERGY EXCESS CARBS ARE STORED AS GLYCOGEN EXCESS CARBS ARE STORED AS GLYCOGEN GLYCOGEN IS STORED IN THE LIVER AND MUSCLES GLYCOGEN IS STORED IN THE LIVER AND MUSCLES WHEN STORES ARE FULL THE EXCESS TURNS INTO FAT WHEN STORES ARE FULL THE EXCESS TURNS INTO FAT

19 NUTRITIONAL FACTS INDIGESTABLE FIBER INDIGESTABLE FIBER CELLULOSE CELLULOSE TERMS USED ON LABELS TERMS USED ON LABELS FIBER FIBER BRAN BRAN BULK BULK HELPS YOU FILL FULL HELPS YOU FILL FULL AIDS IN DIGESTION AND ELIMINATION AIDS IN DIGESTION AND ELIMINATION SOURCES ARE COMPONENTS OF VEGTABLES, FRUITS, GRAINS AND ADDITIVES TO OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS TO SLOW DOWN STALING RATE SOURCES ARE COMPONENTS OF VEGTABLES, FRUITS, GRAINS AND ADDITIVES TO OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS TO SLOW DOWN STALING RATE

20 FUNCTION OF CARBS PROVIDES ENERGY FOR BODY FUNCTIONS PROVIDES ENERGY FOR BODY FUNCTIONS PROVIDES BULK FOR DIGESTION PROCESSES PROVIDES BULK FOR DIGESTION PROCESSES DECREASES BILE ACIDS REABSORPTION DECREASES BILE ACIDS REABSORPTION LOWERS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS LOWERS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS PROMOTES UTILIZATION OF FAT PROMOTES UTILIZATION OF FAT

21 CARBS ARE NOT THE ENEMY IN FACT, THEY ARE SO IMPORTANT THAT THEY REPRESENT THE LARGEST PORTION OF THE USDA’S MyPyramid SYMBOL IN FACT, THEY ARE SO IMPORTANT THAT THEY REPRESENT THE LARGEST PORTION OF THE USDA’S MyPyramid SYMBOL


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