Presentation on theme: "Microbial polysaccharides. Xanthan Gum A polysaccharide Used as food additive & rheology modifier. Production involves fermentation of glucose or sucrose."— Presentation transcript:
Xanthan Gum A polysaccharide Used as food additive & rheology modifier. Production involves fermentation of glucose or sucrose by the bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris
STRUCTURE M.W. varies from ~ 1 million - 50 million depending upon preparation Backbone: –2 β-D-glucose units linked through the 1 and 4 positions. Side chain: –2 mannose units & 1 glucuronic acid unit –Linked to alternate glucose of the backbone at the 3 position. In all, thus, the chain has repeating modules of five sugar units.
40-50% of terminal mannose units have a pyruvic acid group linked as a ketal to its 4 & 6 positions. The other mannose unit has an acetyl group at the 6 position. 2 of these chains aligns to form a double helix –A rigid rod configuration –High efficiency as a viscosifier of water
Structure of Xanthan
Preparation Inoculating a sterile aqueous solution of carbohydrate(s), a N 2 source, dipotassium monohydrogen phosphate & some trace elements Medium is well-aerated & stirred Xanthan is produced extracellularly in the medium Final concentration of xanthan: 3-5% by weight Fermentation for ~ 4 days Precipitation of Xanthan from the medium by addition of isopropyl alcohol Dried and milled to give a powder that is readily soluble in water or brine.
Applications Even 1% can greatly increase in the viscosity of a liquid –In foods, used at 0.05 – 0.5%. Viscosity decreases with high shear rates (mixing, shaking, chewing): Pseudoplasticity –In salad dressings & sauces –Thicker at rest in the bottle to keep the mixture homogeneous –Shear forces due to shaking thins it, so, easily poured –After exiting the bottle, no shear force. So, thickens back & clings to salad. –Stable under a wide range of temperatures and pH
Helps to stabilize the colloidal oil and solid components against creaming. In frozen foods and beverages, creates the pleasant texture In toothpaste, serves as a binder to keep the product uniform In gluten-free baking, to give the dough / batter a "stickiness" –Gluten in wheat to be omitted For thickening liquids for those with swallowing disorders, since it does not change the color or flavor of foods or beverages.
In the oil industry, to thicken drilling fluids –Fluids serve to carry the solids cut by horizontal drilling bit back to the surface –Also been added to concrete poured underwater, in order to increase its viscosity and prevent washout. In cosmetics, to prepare water gels usually in conjunction with bentonite clays. In oil-in-water emulsions to help stabilise the oil droplets against coelesence Has some skin hydrating properties.