2 IntroductionThe word ‘Cream’ is so extensively used that it is difficult to define it.However , it usually signifies a solid or semisolid emulsion.Water is an important content of skin creams.Therefore, in skin creams either fatty phase (oil) can be dispersed in aqueous phase (water) or aqueous phase can be dispersed in fatty phase.
3 IntroductionA cream is a topical preparation usually for application to the skin.Creams may be considered pharmaceutical products as even cosmetic creams are based on techniques developed by pharmacy and unmedicated creams are highly used in a variety of skin conditions ( dermatoses ).The use of the Finger tip unit concept may be helpful in guiding how much topical cream is required to cover different areas.
4 the skin care creams can be classified on different basis According to the nature of type of emulsion:Eg - O/W and W/OAccording to function:Eg - cleansing, foundation, manage etc.According to characteristic properties:Eg - cold creams, vanishing creams
5 Types of creamOil-in-water (O/W) - Composed of small droplets of oil dispersed in a continuous phase,- O/W creams are more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more easily washed off using water.2. Water-in-oil (W/O) - Composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase.-W/O creams are more difficult to handle but many drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic and will be released more readily from a water-in-oil cream than an oil-in-water cream.-W/O are also more moisturising as they provide an oily barrier which reduces water loss from the stratum corneum , the outermost layer of the skin.
6 The most widely accepted classification is based on function. According to the functions the creams can be classified as- : Cleansing and cold creamsFoundation and vanishing creamsNight and massage creamsHand and body creamsAll-purpose and general creams
7 A. Cleansing creamsKeeping the body clean is the most important and primitive need on account of personal hygiene and beautification which leads to the need of cosmetics.Use :Cleansing cream or lotions is required for removal of facial make- up, surface grime ,oil , and water and oil soluble soil efficiently , mainly from the face and throat.
8 Desirable properties of cleansing cream It should be stable and have a good appearance.It should be effectively be able to remove oil- soluble and water soluble soil and surface oil.It should soften on application to the skin.It should spread easily without dragging.During application it should not have oily or greasy feel.A thin emollient film shouldn remain on the skin after its use.
9 Types of cleansing cream: White , emulsified cold cream ( Beeswax-borax type )-These are white ,of high lustre , and free from graininess.The cream have firm consistency.They liquefy on application to the skin & spread with ease.They are O/W type of emulsion.After the creams are rubbed on skin ,a sufficient qty. of water evaporates to impart a phase inversion to the W/O type.In this ,borax react with the free fatty acids present in the beeswax and produces soft soap which acts as the emulsifying agent and emulsifies the oil phase ,containing beeswax ,mineral oils etc. in aqueous phase.
10 Types of cleansing cream: Liquefying cleansing creams-These are translucent liquefying anhydrous type of cleansing creams of thixotropic nature.They have a mixture of oil and waxes and have such consistency that they liquefy when gently massaged on the skin.The portion of mineral oil and waxes is very important to avoid problems like separation, sweating and granular appearance
11 B. Vanishing and foundation creams Vanishing creams- creams which spread easily and seem to disappear rapidly when rubbed are termed as Vanishing creams.These creams are composed of emollient esters which leave little apparent film on the skin.Traditional formulae of this cream is based on stearic acid.After application the cream leaves a dry but tacky residual film which also has a drying ffect on the skin.These are used in hot climates which cause perspiration on the face
12 B. Vanishing and foundation creams Creams which provide base make-up to hold the powder or other make-up above it.It vary in viscosity and available in the form of liquid to thicker creams.The liquid foundation make-up is much easies to apply than powder and a smooth appearance can be obtained.
13 C. Night and manage cream Skin nourishment is important and required to preserve the normal characters of skin or as a treatment to dry skin.To supplement foods for the skin ant to treat the dry skin nutritive , manage or emollient creams are used.Creams which are generally applied on skin and left for few or several hours mostly overnight, known as Night creams.Creams which act by providing emollient action by rubbing the cream on the skin with massage like action are called as Massage creams.
14 D. Hand and Body CreamsHands and other body part’s skin may be exposed to water, water soap ,detergents causes removal of lipids and other secretions from the skin.Cold and dry winds take out moisture resulting in chapping of the skin.Skin dry ,scaly , infection due to microbes can leads to dermatitis. So to control all these hand and body creams are applied.
15 D. Hand and Body Creams Main functions of hand and body creams are Provide an oily fim to protect the skin.Keep the skin smooth but not greasy.Easy to apply.
16 E. All-Purpose creamsAll-Purpose creams In current times there has been a tremandous increase in consumption of preparations which are normally known as All- purpose creams.These were also known as ‘Sports Cream ’ as they were used by sportsmen in skiing and outdoor activities.They are somewhat oily but not greasy type and can spread easily on the skin to give protective film.They act nourishing or night cream when applied excessively ,they function as hand creams when applied sparingly ,thus they are called All-purpose creams.
17 So, the composition of these cream is such that it can act-: As a foundation cream to provide a foundation base for make-up.As a cleansing cream and liquefy easily.As a hand cream and should have emollient characters.As a protective cream and should form a non- occlusive film.As a cream to smooth the rough surface of the skin.So, therefore called All-Purpose cream.