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Surfactants & Formulations

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Presentation on theme: "Surfactants & Formulations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Surfactants & Formulations
Physical Pharmacy 2 4/1/2017 Surfactants & Formulations Kausar Ahmad Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM Physical Pharmacy 2 KBA

2 Choice of surfactants HLB PIT H/L numbering Water absorbing method
Applicable for simple phase emulsions but not for complex phase materials. Normally based on trial and error Physical Pharmacy 2

3 Characteristics of Emulsifiers
Combination of anionic and nonionic to give excellent emulsion stability and viscosity control Examples of nonionic fatty acid monoglycerides, sorbitan fatty acid esters, sugar esters, derivatives of polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers/fatty acid esters/sorbitan fatty acid esters/hydrogenated castor oil Examples of anionic fatty acid soaps, fatty alcohol sulfates Physical Pharmacy 2

4 Fatty acid monoglycerides w/o vanishing creams/lotions
Surfactants Application Advantages Fatty acid monoglycerides w/o vanishing creams/lotions Not sticky, excellent thickening Sugar esters Cosmetic formulation Not efficient but complete safety POE fatty acid esters & hydrophobic Creams & milky lotions Great thickening BUT hydrolysis Fatty acid soaps & nonionic creams Excellent chemical stability, gloss and viscosity BUT alkaline Alkyl sulfate & nonionic Low foaming BUT skin irritation Physical Pharmacy 2

5 Surfactants in Cosmetics
Determine appearance, chemical & physical properties, usage and storage conditions From soaps changed to nonionic surfactants – less toxic Emulsifiers should satisfy the following: No toxicity and skin irritation Chemically and physically stable (expiry?) Surfactants should not affect other ingredients – too many ingredients! Physical Pharmacy 2

6 Formulation Examples of Creams and Ointments
O/W COLD CREAM Stearic acid Liquid paraffin Vaseline Cetyl stearyl alcohol POE polyol f.a. esters Glycerine TEA Deionised water Methyl paraben perfume Physical Pharmacy 2

7 Cosmetic Bases Fats and oils Waxes Hydrocarbons Fatty acids Alcohols
esters Requirement Low toxicity and skin irritation No harmful effect on dermo-physiology Physical and chemical stability No propagation of bacteria Physical Pharmacy 2

8 Shampoos Surfactants Anionic POE alkyl ether sulfate
Amphoteric imidazoline (low iritant) nonionic fatty acid alkalonamides Requirement Satisfactory cleansing power Easy rinsing – no scum Soft & good manageability Luster Low irritation to skin & eyes Physical Pharmacy 2

9 Additives for Shampoo Preservatives benzoic/salicylic acid
Thickening agents cellulose Anti-oxidant BHT Ultraviolet rays absorbent benzophenone Conditioning agent fats/oils, cationic surfactant Anti-dandruff agent selenium disulfide Opacifier mica, polystyrene Physical Pharmacy 2

10 Example of Shampoo Formulation
Refer YOUR actual shampoo formulation! Physical Pharmacy 2

11 Cream Rinse and Conditioner
Primary ingredient is cationic surfactant ca. 1-5% e.g. dialkyl dimethyl ammonium salt; the longer the alkyl chain, the greater the softening effect (thick conditioner?) E.g. of nonionic POE sorbitan fatty acid ester Physical Pharmacy 2

12 Ingredients other than surfactants
Fats & oils Solvent and humectant Thickener Physical Pharmacy 2

13 Dentrifices Pastes blended suspension of liquid paste thickened with binders Gels Powders Liquids Physical Pharmacy 2

14 Ingredients and Composition of Toothpaste
Polishing agents: sodium metaphosphate 25-60 Humectants: glycerine 10-30 Foaming agent: sodium alkyl sulfate 0.5-2 Binder: carrageenan Flavour: peppermint 0.5-3 Sweetener: sodium saccharine 0.1-1 Preservative Therapeutic agent: neem, gamat? water To 100% Physical Pharmacy 2

15 Surfactants in Toothpaste
Provide the expected foaming Reduce surface tension Penetrate and loosen surface deposits Emulsify and suspend debris which toothpaste removes from surface of teeth E.g sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium coconut monoglyceride sulfonate Physical Pharmacy 2

16 Exercise Identify surfactants in What are their specific functions?
Hair shampoo Mouth wash What are their specific functions? Physical Pharmacy 2

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