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Physical Pharmacy 2 1 Surfactants & Formulations Kausar Ahmad Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Pharmacy 2 1 Surfactants & Formulations Kausar Ahmad Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Pharmacy 2 1 Surfactants & Formulations Kausar Ahmad Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, IIUM

2 Physical Pharmacy 22 Choice of surfactants 1. 1. HLB 2. 2. PIT 3. 3. H/L numbering 4. 4. Water absorbing method Applicable for simple phase emulsions but not for complex phase materials. Normally based on trial and error

3 Physical Pharmacy 23 Characteristics of Emulsifiers Combination of anionic and nonionic to give excellent emulsion stability and viscosity control Examples of nonionic fatty acid monoglycerides, sorbitan fatty acid esters, sugar esters, derivatives of polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers/fatty acid esters/sorbitan fatty acid esters/hydrogenated castor oil Examples of anionic fatty acid soaps, fatty alcohol sulfates

4 Physical Pharmacy 24 SurfactantsApplicationAdvantages Fatty acid monoglycerides w/o vanishing creams/lotions Not sticky, excellent thickening Sugar estersCosmetic formulation Not efficient but complete safety POE fatty acid esters & hydrophobic Creams & milky lotions Great thickening BUT hydrolysis Fatty acid soaps & nonionic creamsExcellent chemical stability, gloss and viscosity BUT alkaline Alkyl sulfate & nonionic creamsLow foaming BUT skin irritation

5 Physical Pharmacy 25 Surfactants in Cosmetics Determine appearance, chemical & physical properties, usage and storage conditions From soaps changed to nonionic surfactants – less toxic Emulsifiers should satisfy the following: No toxicity and skin irritation Chemically and physically stable (expiry?) Surfactants should not affect other ingredients – too many ingredients!

6 Physical Pharmacy 26 Formulation Examples of Creams and Ointments O/W COLD CREAM 1. Stearic acid 2. Liquid paraffin 3. Vaseline 4. Cetyl stearyl alcohol 5. POE polyol f.a. esters 6. Glycerine 7. TEA 8. Deionised water 9. Methyl paraben 10. perfume

7 Physical Pharmacy 27 Cosmetic Bases 1. Fats and oils 2. Waxes 3. Hydrocarbons 4. Fatty acids 5. Alcohols 6. esters Requirement Requirement Low toxicity and skin irritation No harmful effect on dermo- physiology Physical and chemical stability No propagation of bacteria

8 Physical Pharmacy 28 Shampoos Surfactants Surfactants Anionic POE alkyl ether sulfate Anionic POE alkyl ether sulfate Amphoteric imidazoline (low iritant) Amphoteric imidazoline (low iritant) nonionic fatty acid alkalonamides nonionic fatty acid alkalonamides Requirement Requirement Satisfactory cleansing power Easy rinsing – no scum Soft & good manageability Luster Low irritation to skin & eyes

9 Physical Pharmacy 29 Additives for Shampoo Preservatives benzoic/salicylic acid Preservatives benzoic/salicylic acid Thickening agents cellulose Thickening agents cellulose Anti-oxidant BHT Anti-oxidant BHT Ultraviolet rays absorbent benzophenone Ultraviolet rays absorbent benzophenone Conditioning agent fats/oils, cationic surfactant Conditioning agent fats/oils, cationic surfactant Anti-dandruff agent selenium disulfide Anti-dandruff agent selenium disulfide Opacifier mica, polystyrene Opacifier mica, polystyrene

10 Physical Pharmacy 2 10 Example of Shampoo Formulation Refer YOUR actual shampoo formulation!

11 Physical Pharmacy 211 Cream Rinse and Conditioner Primary ingredient is cationic surfactant ca. 1-5% e.g. dialkyl dimethyl ammonium salt; the longer the alkyl chain, the greater the softening effect (thick conditioner?) E.g. of nonionic POE sorbitan fatty acid ester

12 Physical Pharmacy 212 Ingredients other than surfactants Fats & oils Fats & oils Solvent and humectant Solvent and humectant Thickener Thickener

13 Physical Pharmacy 213 Dentrifices Pastes blended suspension of liquid paste thickened with binders Pastes blended suspension of liquid paste thickened with binders Gels Gels Powders Powders Liquids Liquids

14 Physical Pharmacy 214 Ingredients and Composition of Toothpaste Polishing agents: sodium metaphosphate25-60 Humectants: glycerine10-30 Foaming agent: sodium alkyl sulfate0.5-2 Binder: carrageenan0.5-2 Flavour: peppermint0.5-3 Sweetener: sodium saccharine0.1-1 Preservative Therapeutic agent: neem, gamat? waterTo 100%

15 Physical Pharmacy 215 Surfactants in Toothpaste Provide the expected foaming Reduce surface tension Penetrate and loosen surface deposits Emulsify and suspend debris which toothpaste removes from surface of teeth E.g sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium coconut monoglyceride sulfonate

16 Physical Pharmacy 216 Exercise Identify surfactants in Identify surfactants in Hair shampoo Hair shampoo Mouth wash Mouth wash What are their specific functions? What are their specific functions?


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