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Starch Megan Erickson Central Washington University.

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Presentation on theme: "Starch Megan Erickson Central Washington University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Starch Megan Erickson Central Washington University

2 What is it? Complex carbohydrate made up of two components Complex carbohydrate made up of two components Components: Components: –Amylose –Amylopectin Properties depend on amounts of the components Properties depend on amounts of the components

3 Where is it found? Roots/Tubers Roots/Tubers –Potato –Arrowroot –Tapioca Cereal Cereal –Corn –Waxy corn –Wheat –Rice –Waxy rice

4 Amylose Linear component of starch Linear component of starch Contains 1,4- alpha-glucosidic bonds Contains 1,4- alpha-glucosidic bonds Molecular weight: less than 0.5 million Molecular weight: less than 0.5 million Can form coils which will trap iodine and turn blue Can form coils which will trap iodine and turn blue

5 Amylopectin Branched component of starch Branched component of starch Contains 1,4-alpha- glucosidic as well as 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds Contains 1,4-alpha- glucosidic as well as 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds Molecular weight: million Molecular weight: million Limited coiling causes purplish-red color when iodine added Limited coiling causes purplish-red color when iodine added

6 Amylose vs. Amylopectin Starches usually contain more amylopectin than amylose Starches usually contain more amylopectin than amylose Generally roots/tubers contain more amylopectin than cereals Generally roots/tubers contain more amylopectin than cereals Roots/Tubers: 80% amylopectin Roots/Tubers: 80% amylopectin Cereals: 75% amylopectin Cereals: 75% amylopectin Waxy corn and rice contain virtually all amylopectin Waxy corn and rice contain virtually all amylopectin

7 Starch Composition

8 Starch Granule Made in the cytoplasm of plant cells Made in the cytoplasm of plant cells Amylopectin forms in concentric circles with amyose dispersed in between Amylopectin forms in concentric circles with amyose dispersed in between Held together by hydrogen bonds Held together by hydrogen bonds The granule swells when heated in water The granule swells when heated in water

9 Starch Granule

10 Functions Gelatinization Gelatinization –Structure in baked products –Thickener in sauces, soups, and dressings Dextrinization Dextrinization Gelation Gelation –Pie filling

11 Gelatinization When starch is heated in water When starch is heated in water Hydrogen bonds break, allowing water to enter the granule and the granule swells Hydrogen bonds break, allowing water to enter the granule and the granule swells Amylose migrates out of the granule Amylose migrates out of the granule H-bonding between water and amylopectin increases H-bonding between water and amylopectin increases Reduced free water changes the viscosity of the starch mixture, thickening it Reduced free water changes the viscosity of the starch mixture, thickening it

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13 Gelatinization and Temperature Gradually thicken with temperature Gradually thicken with temperature Can be heated to 100 o C without much granule rupture Can be heated to 100 o C without much granule rupture If held at 95 o C will implode and lose viscosity If held at 95 o C will implode and lose viscosity

14 Gelatinization and Type of Starch Best thickening ability: potato starch Best thickening ability: potato starch Worst thickening ability: wheat starch Worst thickening ability: wheat starch More amylopectin=more translucent=more stringy More amylopectin=more translucent=more stringy

15 Viscosity and Type of Starch

16 Gelatinization and Sugar Used together in pie fillings and puddings Used together in pie fillings and puddings Sugar competes with the starch for water so less water available for gelatinization Sugar competes with the starch for water so less water available for gelatinization Delays gelatinization and decreases viscosity Delays gelatinization and decreases viscosity Increases gelatinization temperature Increases gelatinization temperature The more sugar added, the longer the delay The more sugar added, the longer the delay Disaccharides have a stronger effect than monosaccharides Disaccharides have a stronger effect than monosaccharides

17 Gelatinization and Acid Used together in fruit pie fillings, specifically lemon fillings Used together in fruit pie fillings, specifically lemon fillings Acid breaks down starch molecules so the paste is thinner Acid breaks down starch molecules so the paste is thinner Decreases viscosity Decreases viscosity Acid effect can be minimized by adding after gelatinization or heating rapidly Acid effect can be minimized by adding after gelatinization or heating rapidly

18 Gelation As a starch paste cools, a gel is formed As a starch paste cools, a gel is formed Free amylose molecules lose energy as the temperature decreases and form hydrogen bonds Free amylose molecules lose energy as the temperature decreases and form hydrogen bonds The bonds create a network that holds the swelled granules in place The bonds create a network that holds the swelled granules in place

19 Gelation and Starch Source The more amylopectin (less amylose), the softer the gel The more amylopectin (less amylose), the softer the gel Potato starch=high amylopectin=good thickening agent=soft gel Potato starch=high amylopectin=good thickening agent=soft gel Corn starch=less amylopectin=less effective thickening agent=strong gel Corn starch=less amylopectin=less effective thickening agent=strong gel

20 Gelation and Other Effects Heating Heating –Moderate temperature and rate of heating –Enough amylose needs to be released from the granule without the granule bursting Agitation Agitation –Agitation during cooling disrupts amylose network –Should mix flavorings immediately after removing from heat

21 Gelation and Other Effects Sugar Sugar –Decreases gelatinization and amylose release –Softer gel Acid Acid –Decreases gelatinization by hydrolysis of granules –Softer gel

22 Aging Gels Syneresis Syneresis –Loss of water from a gel –Amylose molecules pull together, squeezing water out Retrogradation Retrogradation –Realignment of amylose molecules –Hydrogen bonds break and reform into more orderly crystals –Can by reversed by gently heating –Examples: refrigerated pudding, stale bread

23 Dextrinization When starch is heated without water When starch is heated without water A higher temperature is reached than with water A higher temperature is reached than with water Bonds break throughout the starch forming dextrins Bonds break throughout the starch forming dextrins

24 Genetically-modified Starches Waxy starch Waxy starch –High in amylopectin –Used in fruit pies because thickens well, but does not gel well –Have good freeze-thaw stability High amylose starch High amylose starch –Amylose creates strong bonds to form strong gels –Used in edible films to coat food

25 How to compare starches? Line spread test: Line spread test: –Measures thickening power –Poor heated starch into cylinder, lift cylinder and measure spread after specified time using concentric circles Universal Texture Analyzer: Universal Texture Analyzer: –Measures gel strength Percent sag: Percent sag: –Measures gel strength –Measure molded gel height and compare to unmolded gel height –Stronger gel=small % sag, weaker gel=large % sag

26 Modified Starches Physically or chemically modifying native starches Physically or chemically modifying native starches Are used for specific applications in the food industry, Why? Are used for specific applications in the food industry, Why? Native starches have undesirable qualities: Native starches have undesirable qualities: –Poor processing tolerance to heat, shear and acid –Poor textures –Do not store, hold, and freeze/thaw well

27 Pre-gelatinized Starches Use: Use: –Instant pudding Dehydrated gelatinized starch Dehydrated gelatinized starch –Heated so granule swells and then dehydrated –Swells when water added, no heat necessary –Decreases preparation time –Physical change

28 Thin-Boiling Starches Use: Use: –Pass freely through pipes Acid-hydrolyzed starch Acid-hydrolyzed starch –Hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds –Amylopectin in smaller pieces –Decreases thickening power, but makes a strong gel because hydrogen bonds form more readily

29 Cross-linked Starch Use: Use: –Increases storage time because of reduced retrogradation –More stable at high temperature, with agitation, and with acid addition –Salad dressings, baby foods, pie fillings Cross-linked starch molecules Cross-linked starch molecules –Alter hydroxyl ends under alkaline conditions by acetic anhydride, succinic anhydride, or ethylene oxide

30 Viscosity and Cross-linked Starches

31 Resistant Starch Small intestine is unable to digest, limited digestion in large intestine Small intestine is unable to digest, limited digestion in large intestine Classifications Classifications –RS1: trapped in cells (seeds/legumes) –RS2: native starch (raw potatoes, bananas, waxy maize) –RS3: crystalline, non-granular starch (cooked potatoes) –RS4: chemically modified Can contribute fiber to food without the fat that bran has Can contribute fiber to food without the fat that bran has Takes up less water than other fiber, making dough less sticky Takes up less water than other fiber, making dough less sticky Smooth even texture Smooth even texture Less than 3 cal/g Less than 3 cal/g


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