2 CarbohydratesAn organic compound that is the body’s main source of energySources:
3 Function of Carbohydrates Primary source of energy for body (short-term)Sugar is absorbed in the small intestineGlucose is used in various tissues and organsExcess sugar is stored as Glycogen in the liver or in Adipose tissue as fatComplex vs. Simple Carbohydrates Video
4 Simple “Bad”Carbohydrates DisaccharideMonosaccharideSucrose = Table SugarGlucose + FructoseLactose = Milk SugarGlucose + GalactoseVery small moleculesExist in Pure FormSugars –Glucose – the building block of sugarsFructose – fruitGalactose – Milk productsIs Sugar Toxic Video?
5 Complex “Good” Carbohydrates Polymer - A large molecule formed when small molecules of the same kind chain togetherPolysaccharides – Made of chemically linked mono-saccharides – from ten to several thousandExamples:Starch – stored in seeds and rootsFiber – give plants their structure
7 Structure of Starch Amylose Amylopectin Linear molecules Multiple branches
8 Structure of Fiber Soluble Fiber (Dietary) Insoluble Fiber Cellulose Forms a gelSlows digestionInsoluble FiberAdd bulkLaxative effectDo not dissolveCelluloseGlucose polymerStrengthen the plant’s cell walls and woody partsFiber Video
9 How many carbs per day?Based on a 2,000 Calorie Diet: RDA: 250 g Carbohydrates g Fiber The average American only consumes 15 g of fiber per day.
10 RDACarbohydrates = 4 calories/gram How many calories from carbohydrates in one slice of this bread?
11 Low-Carb Diets Ketosis Increase in Cholesterol A dangerous metabolic stateBody burns its own fat for fuelResults in kidney stones and organ failureIncrease in CholesterolIncrease risk of OsteoporosisExcreting Calcium in urineIncrease risk of CancerDepriving body of essential nutrients