2 Why you need food…Food provides your body with materials for growing and for repairing tissues. Food also provides energy for everything you do.
3 NutrientsNutrients- The substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes.
4 6 Nutrient Groups for human health- CarbohydratesFatsProteinsVitaminsMineralsWater
5 EnergyCalorie- The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.Your body needs a certain number of calories each day to meet its energy needs.The more active you are, the more calories your body needs on a daily basis.
6 CarbohydratesCarbohydrates- A major source of energy that is composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.Provides the raw materials to make cell parts.
7 Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) Glucose-The form of sugar the body can most easily use.The major source of energy for your body’s cells.The body converts other types of sugars (ex. Fruit) into glucose.
9 Complex Carbohydrates Made up of many sugar molecules linked together in a chain.Ex. Starch (potatoes, rice, wheat, corn…)Your body must break down these complex carbohydrates into individual sugar molecules before using them.Ex. FiberFiber can NOT be broken down into sugar molecules, so it passes through the body and is eliminated. It is NOT a nutrient.
11 Nutritionist’s Recommendations 45 to 65 % of your calories in a diet come from carbohydrates.It is better to eat COMPLEX carbohydrates rather than simple carbohydrates.Sugars may give a burst of energy, but STARCHES give more long term energy.
12 FatsFats- Energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.Contain more than TWICE the energy of an equal amount of carbohydrates.Fats form part of the cell membrane.Fatty tissue protects and supports your internal organs and insulates your body.
13 Kinds of FatsSaturated- Fats that are solid at room temperature (ex. meat and dairy).Unsaturated- Fats that are usually liquid at room temperature (ex. cooking oils).Trans Fat- Fats made when manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oils (ex. Margarine, chips, commercially baked goods).TRANS FAT & SATURATED = UNHEALTHY
15 CholesterolCholesterol- A waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products.Cholesterol is an important part of your body’s cells.Cholesterol is NOT a necessary part of your diet because your liver can make all of the cholesterol your body needs.
16 Nutritionist’s Recommendations No more than 30 % of the calories eaten each day should come from fats.Too many fats can cause fatty build up in blood vessels and lead to heart disease.
17 ProteinsProteins- Nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.Proteins are needed for tissue growth and repair.10 to 35 % of your daily calories should come from proteins.
19 Amino AcidsAmino Acids- A small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins.Your body makes about 1/2 of the amino acids it needs. The rest must come from food.
20 Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins Complete Proteins- Foods that contain all the essential amino acids (ex. Food from animal sources- meat and eggs and plant sources such as soy and quinoa).Incomplete Proteins- Foods that are missing one or more essential amino acid (ex. Foods from plant sources- beans, grains, nuts)
21 Vitamins and MineralsVitamins- Molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reaction within the body.Fat soluble vitamins- Dissolve in fat (stored in body) ex. A, D, E, KWater soluble vitamins- Dissolve in water (not stored in body) ex. B and C vitamins, folic acid
22 Minerals- Nutrients that are not made by living things Minerals- Nutrients that are not made by living things. Minerals are present in soil and are absorbed by plants through their roots. We obtain the minerals by eating plant foods or animals that have eaten plants.***BOTH VITAMINS AND MINERALS ARE NEEDED BY YOUR BODY IN SMALL AMOUNTS TO CARRY OUT CHEMICAL PROCESSES.***Refer to pgs in textbook.
23 Water 65% of the average person’s body weight is water. Water is the most important nutrient because the body’s vital processes- including chemical reactions such as the breakdown of nutrients- take place in water.You need 2 liters(8 cups) of water every day.65%
24 Guidelines for a Healthy Diet The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) guidelines provide a personalized way to help people make healthy food choices based on their age, sex, and amount of physical activity.MyPlate Video
25 Food LabelsFood labels allow you to evaluate a single food as well as to compare the nutritional value of two different foods.
26 How to Read a Food LabelServing Size- The size of a single serving and the number of servings in the container.Calories- How much energy you can get from one serving of the food, including how many calories come from fat.Percent Daily Value- Shows how the nutritional content of one serving fits into a recommended diet.Ingredients- Listed in order by weight, starting with the main ingredient.