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Understanding Food Chapter 20: Starches and Sauces.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Food Chapter 20: Starches and Sauces."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Food Chapter 20: Starches and Sauces

2 Starches as Thickeners Starches contribute to the: Starches contribute to the: Texture Texture Taste Taste Appearance Appearance

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4 Starches as Thickeners Cereals that are common sources of starch are: Cereals that are common sources of starch are:  Wheat  Rice  Corn Root starches include:  Potatoes  Arrowroot  Cassava (tapioca) Other sources of complex carbohydrates are:  Dried beans  Peas  Sago palm

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6 Starches as Thickeners Starch is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of repeating units of glucose molecules linked together either in the form of:  Amylose, which is made up of largely linear molecules.  Amylopectin, whose molecules are highly branched.

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8 Starch Characteristics Starches have the capacity to go through the processes of: Starches have the capacity to go through the processes of:  Gelatinization: The increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency of starch granules when they are heated in a liquid.  Gel formation  Retrogradation  Dextrinization

9 Starch Characteristics Gelatinization is dependent on a number of factors, including: Gelatinization is dependent on a number of factors, including:  Amount of water  Temperature  Timing  Stirring …and the presence of:  Acid  Sugar  Fat  Protein

10 Starch Characteristics Gel formation-requirements Gel formation-requirements Gelatinization Gelatinization Amylose Amylose Cooling Cooling

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13 Starch Characteristics Retrogradation: The seepage of water out of an aging gel due to the contraction of the gel Retrogradation: The seepage of water out of an aging gel due to the contraction of the gel Dextrinization: The breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter-tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat. Dextrinization: The breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter-tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat.

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16 Starch Characteristics Modified Starches For food industry use Crosslinked starch Oxidized starch Instant or pregelatinized starch

17 Starch Characteristics Crosslinked starch, one of the more commonly used modified starches, has been treated chemically to link the starch molecules together with crossbridges. Crosslinked starch, one of the more commonly used modified starches, has been treated chemically to link the starch molecules together with crossbridges.  Crosslinking makes a starch more heat resistant.

18 Sauces The major sauces used in food preparation are: Thickened sauces, including: Thickened sauces, including:  Cheese sauce  White sauce  Some gravies Unthickened sauces, including:  Other gravies  Hollandaise  Butter  Fruit  Barbecue  Tartar  Tomato sauces

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21 Sauces-thickeners Roux: A thickener made by cooking equal parts of flour and fat. Roux: A thickener made by cooking equal parts of flour and fat. There are three types of roux that serve as the foundation in making thickened sauces: There are three types of roux that serve as the foundation in making thickened sauces:  White  Blond  Brown

22 Sauces-thickeners Beurre manié (pronounced burr mahn-YAY): A thickener that is a soft paste made from equal parts of soft butter and flour blended together.

23 Sauces-thickeners Slurry: A thickener made by combining starch and a cool liquid. Slurry: A thickener made by combining starch and a cool liquid.

24 No lumps Lump-free sauces Lump-free sauces  Fat and flour thoroughly mixed before adding liquid  Small amount of starch mixed with cold water before adding  Sugar

25 Sauces Gravy is made from the juices or drippings remaining in the pan after meat or poultry is cooked. Gravy is made from the juices or drippings remaining in the pan after meat or poultry is cooked. The drippings can be served thickened and with added seasonings or unthickened. The drippings can be served thickened and with added seasonings or unthickened.  Au jus: Served with its own natural juices; a term usually used in reference to roasts.

26 Sauces Deglaze: Adding liquid to pan drippings and simmering/stirring to dissolve and loosen cooked-on particles sticking to the bottom of the pan. Deglaze: Adding liquid to pan drippings and simmering/stirring to dissolve and loosen cooked-on particles sticking to the bottom of the pan. Reduction: To simmer or boil a liquid until the volume is reduced through evaporation, leaving a thicker, more concentrated, flavorful mass. Reduction: To simmer or boil a liquid until the volume is reduced through evaporation, leaving a thicker, more concentrated, flavorful mass.

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28 Storage of Starches and Sauces The quality of dry starches deteriorates with improper storage. The quality of dry starches deteriorates with improper storage. Thickened sauces should also be prepared, served, and stored with caution.


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