Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning Conditioning is stronger if… CS consistently predicts UCS CS/UCS are paired frequently (more trials) UCS is intense (causes strong response) CS is presented immediately before UCS
We better learn associations when… – It is useful for survival Biological predispositions, adaptive – It does not involve cognitive processing i.e. alcohol & nauseating drug CSUCSLearned Response Loud NoiseShockFear Loud NoiseRadiation (nausea)Nothing Sweet WaterShockNothing Sweet WaterRadiation (nausea)Avoid Water Garcia & Koelling’s study on biological predispositions to classical conditioning
Biopsychosocial Influences on Learning Biological Genetic predispositions Unconditioned responses Adaptive responses Psychological Previous experiences Predictability of associations Generalization Discrimination Social-Cultural Culturally learned preferences Motivation, affected by presence of others LEARNING
Learning Theories Goal How do we acquire behaviors through operant conditioning?
Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect Cats placed in “puzzle boxes” Use trial-and-error to “escape” Continue behaviors w/good result Discontinue behaviors w/bad result
Operant Conditioning Reinforcement – Make a behavior more likely to be performed again Punishment – Make a behavior less likely to be performed again
Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Increases response by presenting positive stimulus Negative Reinforcement Increases response by removing negative stimulus
Punishment Positive Punishment Decrease behavior by presenting bad stimulus Negative Punishment Decrease behavior by removing good stimulus (omission training)
Punishment is not as effective as Reinforcement because it… Suppresses behavior (not forgotten) Teaches discrimination Teaches fear May increase aggressiveness
Reinforcers Immediate v. Delayed Reinforcers Unlearned Conditioned (Secondary) Reinforcer Learned through association Primary Reinforcer Continuous v. Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
Shaping Reinforce each step (successive approximation) toward desired behavior
Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Fixed-ratio – reinforcement after a set or fixed number of behaviors occur Variable-ratio – reinforcement after different numbers of behaviors # Behaviors12345678 Fixed-ratio Variable-ratio
Schedules of Partial Reinforcement Fixed-interval – reinforcement after a set or fixed amount of time Variable-interval – reinforcement after different amounts of time Time (hrs.)12345678 Fixed- interval Variable- interval
Extending Operant Conditioning Cognitive Influences Cognitive map – mental representation of environment Latent Learning – learning not known until there is motivation to demonstrate it
Biology & Operant Conditioning Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive – Pigeons naturally peck Easy to teach pigeons to peck to receive food – Pigeons naturally flap wings Teach pigeons to flap wings to avoid shock – However, difficult to teach pigeon to flap wings to get food, or peck to avoid shock
Applications of Operant Conditioning School – token economy Sports Work – schedules of reinforcement Home Self-improvement - Biofeedback
Observational Learning “social learning” We observe & imitate others’ behavior Modeling: demonstrating behavior to be learned
Mirror Neurons Frontal lobe Fire when performing certain actions OR when seeing someone else perform those actions Role in emotions, empathy (theory of mind) http://video.pbs.org/video/1615173073/
Bandura’s “Bobo Doll” Study http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publica tions/observer/obsonline/bandura-and-bobo.html http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publica tions/observer/obsonline/bandura-and-bobo.html
Vicarious Conditioning Part observational learning We learn by observing others’ reactions to stimulus or others’ outcomes – Learn to be afraid of shots at the doctor after watching your sister cry after getting a shot – Seeing a friend get a sticker for an A on his homework (you learn to do your homework)
Prosocial Effects Role models Model reading, helpful behaviors, nonviolence Consistency is key – BUT…. “Do as I say, not as I do” = children imitate the hypocrisy!
Antisocial Effects Aggression violence-viewing effect? Desensitization to violence Promiscuity? Drug use?