20 Applications of Classical Conditioning to change behavior Counterconditioning Aversion Training
21 Early Operant Conditioning E.L. Thorndike (1898) the “Puzzle Box” Thorndike’s Law of Effect
22 B. F. Skinner the Skinner Box the Skinner Box
23 Reinforcement Increases the likelihood of a behavior Primary and Secondary reinforcers Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement
24 Principles of Operant Conditioning ShapingGeneralizationDiscriminationExtinction Multiple reinforcement
25 Increasing Behavior Tips Timing Quality of reward Partial schedules of reinforcement
26 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning CLASSICALOPERANT Stimulus precedes response Stimulus follows response Learning through associations Learning through consequences Involuntary behavior Voluntary behavior
27 Punishment Decreases the likelihood of a behavior not the same as negative reinforcement! Punishment by application (a.k.a. positive punishment, aversive punishment) (a.k.a. positive punishment, aversive punishment) Punishment by removal (a.k.a. negative punishment, response cost) (a.k.a. negative punishment, response cost)
31 Social-Cognitive Learning Theories Depart from strict behaviorism Take into account: Role of awareness Role of awareness Role of self-evaluation Role of self-evaluation
32 Latent Learning Tolman’s rat study 3 groups 1. food at end of maze daily 1. food at end of maze daily 2. no food in maze 2. no food in maze 3. no food in maze for 9 days, food in maze on 10 th day 3. no food in maze for 9 days, food in maze on 10 th day cognitive maps
33 Insight Learning Insight = the sudden perception of the connection of parts of a problem that allows one to see a clear solution the aha! moments
34 This is a most unusual paragraph. How quickly can you find out what is so unusual about it? It looks so ordinary that you would think that nothing is wrong with it at all, and, in fact, nothing is. But it is unusual. Why? If you study it and think about it, you may find out, but I am not going to assist you in any way. You must do it without any hints or coaching. No doubt, if you work at it for a bit, it will dawn on you. Who knows? Go to work and try your skill. Good luck!
35 26 L. of the A. 9 P. in the S.S. 200 D. for P.G. in M. 5 D. in a Z.C. 11 P. on a F. T. 88 P.K. 4 A. in a D. of C.