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1 The Learning Perspective: How the Environment Influences Behavior.

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1 1 The Learning Perspective: How the Environment Influences Behavior

2 2 Definition Learning – a change in behavior due to experience with the environment

3 3 Ivan Pavlov Studied digestive reflexes and salivation in dogs

4 4 Classical Conditioning Learning through automatic associations Reflex/Involuntary behaviors, emotions

5 Classical Conditioning Food Salivation Unconditioned (unlearned) association Food (Unconditioned Stimulus) Salivation (Unconditioned Response)

6 Classical Conditioning SalivationFood Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Bell (Neutral Stimulus) If you pair a NS with UCS a number of times…

7 Classical Conditioning Salivation (Conditioned Response) Bell (Conditioned Stimulus) It will begin to elicit a conditioned response

8 Terminology Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Once paired with UCS, NS becomes conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits conditioned response (CR) on its own

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11 11 Factors that increase acquisition forward pairing strong UCS UCS and NS closer in time higher frequency of pairings higher frequency of pairings distinctive CS

12 12 Other principles of Classical Conditioning Stimulus Discriminaton Stimulus Generalization Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Higher-order conditioning

13 13 John B. Watson and Little Albert

14 14 Classical Conditioning in the Real World Advertising

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18 18 Classical Conditioning in the Real World AdvertisingPTSDAversionsPhobias

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20 20 Applications of Classical Conditioning to change behavior Counterconditioning Aversion Training

21 21 Early Operant Conditioning E.L. Thorndike (1898) the “Puzzle Box” Thorndike’s Law of Effect

22 22 B. F. Skinner the Skinner Box the Skinner Box

23 23 Reinforcement Increases the likelihood of a behavior Primary and Secondary reinforcers Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement

24 24 Principles of Operant Conditioning ShapingGeneralizationDiscriminationExtinction Multiple reinforcement

25 25 Increasing Behavior Tips Timing Quality of reward Partial schedules of reinforcement

26 26 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning CLASSICALOPERANT Stimulus precedes response Stimulus follows response Learning through associations Learning through consequences Involuntary behavior Voluntary behavior

27 27 Punishment Decreases the likelihood of a behavior not the same as negative reinforcement! Punishment by application (a.k.a. positive punishment, aversive punishment) (a.k.a. positive punishment, aversive punishment) Punishment by removal (a.k.a. negative punishment, response cost) (a.k.a. negative punishment, response cost)

28 28 Problems with Punishment

29 29 DRO Training Steps

30 30 Applications of Operant Conditioning to change behavior behavior modification uses shaping, incentives uses shaping, incentives token economy token economy

31 31 Social-Cognitive Learning Theories Depart from strict behaviorism Take into account: Role of awareness Role of awareness Role of self-evaluation Role of self-evaluation

32 32 Latent Learning Tolman’s rat study 3 groups 1. food at end of maze daily 1. food at end of maze daily 2. no food in maze 2. no food in maze 3. no food in maze for 9 days, food in maze on 10 th day 3. no food in maze for 9 days, food in maze on 10 th day cognitive maps

33 33 Insight Learning Insight = the sudden perception of the connection of parts of a problem that allows one to see a clear solution the aha! moments

34 34 This is a most unusual paragraph. How quickly can you find out what is so unusual about it? It looks so ordinary that you would think that nothing is wrong with it at all, and, in fact, nothing is. But it is unusual. Why? If you study it and think about it, you may find out, but I am not going to assist you in any way. You must do it without any hints or coaching. No doubt, if you work at it for a bit, it will dawn on you. Who knows? Go to work and try your skill. Good luck!

35 35 26 L. of the A. 9 P. in the S.S. 200 D. for P.G. in M. 5 D. in a Z.C. 11 P. on a F. T. 88 P.K. 4 A. in a D. of C.

36 36 Observational Learning Learning from others Bandura’s social learning theory: 1. attention 2. retention (memory) 3. reproduction (imitation) 4. motivation

37 37 Enhancing observational learning Status/Behavior of model Dependence of observer UncertaintyOutcome observational learning can lead to undesirable behaviors as well!

38 38 Learning Aggression Bandura’s Bobo doll study 3 IV conditions: 1. model rewarded 2. model scolded 3. no consequences

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40 40 Do we ‘learn’ violence? Television violence Video games Pornography

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