Presentation on theme: "Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning Learning Conditioning Watson Thorndike Behavior Reinforcement Skinner Operants."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning Learning Conditioning Watson Thorndike Behavior Reinforcement Skinner Operants Classical cond. Punishment Bandura Pavlov UCS/UCR Pos/Neg Extinction CS/CR Bobo-doll exp. Token Economy NS Schedules of Reinf. Spontaneous Recovery Operant cond. Interval Response Modeling Ratio Discrimination Instinctive drift Tollman Generalization Little Albert Theories of Learning Phobias Latent learning Biological preparedness
2 Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer. Primary & Conditioned Reinforcers
A _____________ is the specific stimulus in the presence of which a particular operant is more likely to be reinforced _________ is reinforcing successful approximations of a behavior until the correct behavior is displayed; acquisition is the beginning process of learning a behavior Shaping ______________ reinforcement, a pattern of reinforcement in which every occurrence of a particular response is reinforced Partial reinforcement is a pattern of reinforcement in which the occurrence of a particular response is only intermittently reinforced Extinction is the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned behavior and occurs because of the disappearance of reinforcement The _____ is the phenomenon in which behaviors that are conditioned using partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction than behaviors that are conditioned using continuous reinforcement
Schedules of reinforcement are specific preset arrangements of partial reinforcement that produce different patterns and rates of responding With a ___________schedule, reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses With a variable-ratio schedule reinforcement occurs after ____________ number of responses With a fixed-interval schedule, a reinforcer is delivered for the ___________after the preset time interval has elapsed With a __________ schedule, reinforcement occurs for the first response emitted after an average amount of time has elapsed…but the interval varies from trial to trial
A primary reinforcer is one that is naturally reinforcing for a given species A conditioned reinforcer or secondary reinforcer, is one that has acquired reinforcing values by being associated with a primary reinforcer. ________ is a process in which a behavior is followed by an aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated Positive punishment decreases the response and decreases the frequency of the behavior by adding something _______ Negative punishment decreases the response and decreases the frequency of the behavior by ___________ something pleasurable Punishment is more effective if it immediately and consistently follows a response
8 Punishment 1.Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten. 2.Punishment teaches discrimination. 3.Punishment can teach fear. 4.Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems. In relation to parenting and physical punishment of children, these four drawbacks have been found.
Disadvantages… It doesn’t teach a more appropriate response It may have undesirable results such as passivity, fear, aggression, or hostility
Behavioral modification is the application of learning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors Edward C. Tolman, an American psychologist, did not believe that you needed reinforcers to learn Even in the absence of a reward, latent learning or learning that is not immediately demonstrated in overt behavior can occur ____________________ is the phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior Learned helplessness Cognition & Operant Conditioning Evidence of cognitive processes during operant learning comes from rats during a maze exploration in which they navigate the maze without an obvious reward. Rats seem to develop cognitive maps, or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment). Such cognitive maps are based on latent learning, which becomes apparent only when an incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).
Reinforcement or Punishment? Positive or Negative? 1. Johnny talks back to mom. Mom takes away game boy. _________________ 2. Johnny talks back to mom. Mom slaps him. __________________ 3. Johnny talks back to mom. When mom sees Johnny, she cries. _________________ 4. Johnny talks back to mom. Mom ignores Johnny. Johnny talks back even more. ________________ 5. Johnny talks back to mom. Mom yells at Johnny. Johnny talks back even more. __________________
12 Biological Predispositions John Garcia Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not. Courtesy of John Garcia
The instinctive drift interferes with the animal’s ability to learn a new behavior Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the actions of others Which theorist is associated with observational learning? Albert Bandura In observational learning, it is the _________ of a reward or reinforcement that affects the performance of what has been learned observation What major psychological perspective is associated with observational learning? Social learning theory Remember the Bobo Doll experiment…
Sally did not enjoy going with her mother to the grocery store. One day when Sally and her mother went to the grocery store, a new baker was working in the bakery department and the baker gave Sally a cookie. Sally loves cookies. Every time Sally sees the baker at the grocery store, the baker gives Sally a cookie. Now whenever Sally sees the baker, she gets excited…and Sally has begun to enjoy going to the grocery store. Classical Conditioning or Operant conditioning? Explain.