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HUMAN ASPECTS OF ORGANIZING Review Steps in Staffing Technical Organizations 1. Human Resource Planning 2. Personnel Selection (effective résumés, employment.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN ASPECTS OF ORGANIZING Review Steps in Staffing Technical Organizations 1. Human Resource Planning 2. Personnel Selection (effective résumés, employment."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN ASPECTS OF ORGANIZING Review Steps in Staffing Technical Organizations 1. Human Resource Planning 2. Personnel Selection (effective résumés, employment application, campus interviews, reference checks, plant visits, job offer) 3. Orienting and Training New Employees and Performance Evaluation Dr.B.G.Cetiner Nature of Authority Sources of Authority and Power Importance of Status and Culture System of assignment, delegation and accountability Committees and Meetings (Reasons for using, problems, and methods for making them effective)

2 Human Aspects of Organizing Staffing Technical Organization Finding, attracting and keeping personnel of the quantity and quality needed to meet organizational goals Dr.B.G.Cetiner A. Human Resource Planning Process of hiring technical professionals 1. Personnel on hand 2. Need: Estimate number of professionals needed (6 months to year) 3. Estimate expected attrition (resignation, transfers and promotions, retirements etc.) 4. Establish need for increase (increase=need-personnel on hand+attrition) 5. New College Hires 6. Experienced Professionals 7. Technician Support 8. Other Sources (outsourcing)

3 Hiring Managers Similar plan needed for staffing management positions Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Most middle and upper level management positions filled by promotions A healthy organization needs large number of first line managers each year

4 B. Personnel Selection Essentially a filtering process Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing * Résumés or applications are reviewed * Potential candidates are screened in campus or telephone reviews * References are checked * Company interview and tests if necessary * Starting Salary and Job offer

5 Résumé and Cover Letter Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing 1. Name, address and telephone numbers 2. Current Job Position 3. Current and longer term employment objectives 4. Summary of education 5. Employment Experience 6. Publications, presentations and patents 7. Awards and honors 8. Professional Affiliations 9. References (available by request) Writing effective Résumé is an important skill.

6 C. Orientation and Training/ Performance Evaluation Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Personnel Department’s duty About the work, mission, objectives, quality and safety Many techniques. Oldest one is rating technique - Define a table of questions - Give Rating for each row in table from Outstanding to inadequate For example, 1. Knowledge of the work 2. Quality of the work Performance Evaluation 3. Quantity of the work 4. Attendance and Punctuality 5. Carrying out instructions 6. Overall Evaluation Orientation and Training

7 Nature of Authority Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Legitimate power, the right, based on one’s position in an organization, to direct the work of activities. Similar approach is in whole society Formal Authority The rights are guaranteed in the constitutions of societies Acceptance Theory of Authority If a directive communication is accepted by one to whom it is addressed, its authority for him is confirmed or established. Why majority of requests are obeyed, or complied with in organizations? Orders Unacceptable Neutral Zone of indifference (unquestionably acceptable )

8 Sources of Power Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing 1. Legitimate or position power (authority) 2. Reward power, the power to reward others for cooperation 3. Punishment power, stemming from fear of punishment 4. Expert power, stemming from a person’s capability and reputation 5. Referent power, based on an attraction to or identification with another individual that makes the follower want to behave or believe as the other does. Called charisma, a special personal gift for inspiring others. The first three are sufficient to obtain adequate response. Power is ability to cause action, politics is the art of obtaining power. 6. Power through access to important individuals 7. Power obtained through ingratiation or praise 8. Manipulative power 9. Power of persistence or assertiveness 10. Power via coalition

9 Status Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing 1. Functional Status: Derives from one’s type of work or profession 2. Scalar Status: Due to one’s level in the organization. Two Types of Status Culture: Collectivity of some practices and habits Try to establish a culture that will be most effective in achieving the goals of the organization

10 Assignment, Delegation and Accountability Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Manager Subordinate Assigns duties to Delegates authority to Exacts (requires) accountability (responsibility) from Authority should be commensurate with responsibility. You cannot delegate responsibility.

11 Reasons for Delegation Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing 1. Delegation relieves the manager 2. The subordinate is given a chance to develop his skills 3. Tends to locate decision making closer to work being performed

12 Barriers to Delegation for Engineers Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Engineer is trained in a discipline. When he becomes manager he will be responsible for others. He has the responsibility to train his subordinates. Insecure managers load themselves with subordinate’s problems. Problem: Who has got the monkey? Monkey=Problem Boss, We have a problem

13 Barriers to Delegation for Engineers Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Insecure managers load themselves with subordinate’s problems. Problem: Who has got the monkey? Monkey=Problem I am busy now. Send me a memo.

14 Barriers to Delegation for Engineers Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Insecure managers load themselves with subordinate’s problems. Problem: Who has got the monkey? Monkey=Problem I am busy now. Send me a memo.

15 Barriers to Delegation for Engineers Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Monkey=Problem Place the monkey on the desk between you and subordinate and figure out together how the next move might be subordinate’s (try to put the monkey back on the shoulder of subordinate).

16 Decentralization Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing As organizations become larger, it no longer is effective (or even feasible) to make all decisions at the top. The dangerous result is loss of control at the top. Effective Balance of Decentralization and Centralized control of key decisions Allocation of Major financial resources have to be central. Better decisions are possible due to closeness to problem.

17 Committees and Meetings Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Probably most maligned but one of the most common forms of organization structure c A committe contains two or more people who are officially designated to meet some specific purpose c Found in every type of organizations; small or large, public or private etc. c Committee is defined as a group of men who keep minutes but waste hours. So be careful with committees c Committees

18 Committees and Meetings Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Policy making and administration c Representation c Sharing knowledge and expertise c Securing Cooperation in execution c Reasons for using Committees Pooling of authority c Training of participants c

19 Committees and Meetings Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Tendency to produce compromise solutions c Committee decisions are inferior c Inability of holding one person responsible c Usually Delay in solving Problems c Problems with Committees SOLUTION Treat committee as advisory one and hold responsible someone (usually chairman of committee)

20 Making Committees Effective Dr.B.G.Cetiner Human Aspects of Organizing Committee Purpose and Chair c Committee Size and Memberhip c Preparation for the meeting c Meeting follow-up c Conduct of the meeting c Task functions 1. Initiating (tasks, ideas, or procedures) 2. Information or opinion seeking 3. Information or opinion giving 4. Clarifying (status of discussion) 5. Summarizing 6. Testing for consensus c Group Relations functions 1. Encouraging 2. Expressing group feelings 3. Harmonizing 4. Modifying (according to group) 5. Keeping communication open 6. Evaluating c Meeting follow-up c


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