2 Learning Objectives Define what a supervisor is. Summarize research findings that have led to basic ideas of what managers should doDescribe the basic types of supervisory skills.Describe how the growing diversity of the workforce affects the supervisor's role.Identify the general functions of a supervisor.Explain how supervisors are responsible to higher management, employees, and co-workers.Describe the typical background of someone who is promoted to supervisor.Identify characteristics of a successful supervisor.See text page: 2
3 Supervision Supervisor a manager at the first level of management, which means the employees reporting to the supervisor are not managersThe Taft-Hartley Act embellishes this definition by indicating that a supervisor is “any individual havingauthority, in the interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off,recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward or discipline other employees, orresponsibility to direct them, or to adjust their grievances, or effectively to recommendsuch action, if in connection with the foregoing the exercise of such authorityis not of a merely routine or clerical nature, but requires the use of independentjudgment.”1
5 Supervisors Should Focus on Efficiency Frederic Taylor, the father of scientific management, believed that in order to improve efficiency, it is important to consider the best way in which a job could be completed.By applying scientific knowledge to the study of production, it was feasible to maximize efficiency.
6 Supervisors Should Focus on Functions to Be Performed All managers have primary management functions to perform in organizationsPlanningOrganizingLeadingControlling
7 Supervisors Should Focus on People Because they deal directly with employees and have knowledge about an organization’s customers, supervisors emphasize a people orientation.This focus recognizes that the quality of an organization is often affected by the quality of interactions among its members.
8 Types of Supervisory Skills Technical skillsthe specialized knowledge and expertise used to carry out particular techniques or procedures.Human relation skillsthe ability to work effectively with other people.Conceptual skillsthe ability to see the relation of the parts to the whole and to one another.Decision-making skillsthe ability to analyze information and reach good decisions.See Learning Objective 2: Describe the basic types of supervisory skills.See text pages: 4-5
9 Relative Importance of Types of Skills for Different Levels of Managers See Learning Objective 2: Describe the basic types of supervisory skills.See text page: 51-9
10 Modern View of Management Skills Task-related activities: Efforts to carry out critical management-related dutiesPeople-related activities: Efforts to manage people3. Change-related activities: Efforts to modify components of the organization1. Task-related activities: Efforts to carry out critical management-related duties, suchas planning, setting objectives for employees, and monitoring performance.2. People-related activities: Efforts to manage people, such as by providing supportand encouragement, recognizing contributions, developing employees’ skills,and empowering employees to solve problems.3. Change-related activities: Efforts to modify components of the organization, suchas monitoring the environment to detect a need for change, proposing new tacticsand strategies, encouraging others to think creatively, and taking risks topromote needed changes.
11 Supervising a Diverse Workforce While the share of white men in the workforce declines, the share of black, Hispanic, and Asian workers is expected to rise.Women now make up more than 46 percent of the adult labor poolThe segment aged 65 years and over is expected to represent more than 16 percent of the U.S. population by 2020.
12 Opportunities and Challenges Even greater diversity expected in the U.S. workforce of the future—coupled with laws and policies intended to ensure fair treatment of various groups—requires supervisors to work successfully with a much wider variety of people.
13 Subtle Discrimination Supervisors and other managers can use several tactics to improve attitudes:Have employees work with someone who is differentUse the kind of behavior they expect employees to exhibitQuestion negative stereotypes
15 PlanningThe purpose of planning by supervisors is to determine how the department can contribute to achieving the organization’s goals.This includes planning how much money to spend, what level of output to achieve, and how many employees will be needed
16 OrganizingAt the supervisory level, organizing involves activities such as scheduling projects and assigning duties to employeesModern supervisors are increasingly responsible for setting up and leading teams of workers to handle special projects or day-today operations.
17 StaffingStaffingIdentifying, hiring, and developing the necessary number and quality of employeesA supervisor’s performance depends on the quality of results that the supervisor achieves through his or her employees
18 LeadingLeadingInfluencing people to act (or not act) in a certain wayThe supervisor is responsible for letting employees know what is expected of them and inspiring and motivating employees to do good work.
19 Controlling Controlling Monitoring performance and making needed correctionsThe supervisor is expected to provide employees with the resources and motivation to identify and correct problems themselves.
20 Relationships Among the Functions Planning comes first, followed by organizing, then staffing, then leading, and, finally, controlling. This order occurs because each function depends on the preceding function or functions.Typically, supervisors spend most of their time leading and controlling.See Learning Objective 4: Identify the general functions of a supervisor.See text pages: 10-11
21 Responsibilities of Supervisors • Recognize the talents of each subordinate. • Share your vision of where the organization wants to go. • Treat employees with dignity and respect. • Conduct necessary meetings efficiently and ensure they accomplish their intended tasks. • Keep your staff informed and up to date. • Be accessible to those under your supervision. • Conduct periodic evaluations of your group’s progress. • Provide an opportunity for employees to evaluate you. • Praise your staff for their accomplishments. • Keep in touch with your industry. • Be able to perform the duties of those you supervise.Recognize the talents of each subordinate.• Share your vision of where the organization wants to go.• Treat employees with dignity and respect.• Conduct necessary meetings efficiently and ensure they accomplish their intendedtasks.• Keep your staff informed and up to date.• Be accessible to those under your supervision.• Conduct periodic evaluations of your group’s progress.• Provide an opportunity for employees to evaluate you.• Praise your staff for their accomplishments.• Keep in touch with your industry.• Be able to perform the duties of those you supervise.• Keep a sense of humor.• Be fair.• Follow proper hiring practices.• Know the law as it applies to your company and your job.• Adhere to workplace safety rules and regulations.• Keep accurate employee records.• Avoid sexual harassment and discrimination based on gender, age, race, pregnancy,sexual orientation, or national origin.• Know how to fire an employee without violating his or her rights.
22 Types of Responsibilities Giving managers timely and accurate information for planningKeeping managers informed about the department’s performanceGiving their employees clear instructions and making sure they understand their jobsCooperating with co-workers in other departmentsSee Learning Objective 5: Explain how supervisors are responsible to higher management, employees, and co-workers.See text pages: 11-12
23 Responsibilities and Accountability the practice of imposing penalties for failing to carry out responsibilities adequatelyusually includes giving rewards for meeting responsibilities.
24 Becoming a Supervisor Typical candidates to be made supervisors: An employee with a superior grasp of the technical skills needed to perform well in the department.A person with the most seniority.An employee with good work habits and leadership skills.Recent college graduates.See Learning Objective 6: Describe the typical background of someone who is promoted to supervisor.See text pages: 13-14
25 Preparing for the JobLearn about management through books and observation.Learn as much as possible about the organization, the department, and the job.Once on the job, continue the learning process.Acknowledge another person’s feelings if they were also a candidate for the position.See Learning Objective 6: Describe the typical background of someone who is promoted to supervisor.See text pages: 14-15
26 Obtaining and Using Power and Authority Have the new supervisor’s boss make an official announcement of the promotion.State your expectations, desire to work as a team, and interest in hearing about work-related problems.Don’t rush to make changes in the department.See Learning Objective 6: Describe the typical background of someone who is promoted to supervisor.See text page: 15
27 Becoming a Supervisor Set limits on your behavior Don’t be a “rescuer.”Figure out how to measure successCommunicate with everyoneBe firm.Learn from othersOften, a new supervisor takes on his or her positionas the result of a promotion. That means thesupervisor’s relationships with others in the departmentwill change. How do you maintain positiveworking relationships with people when you arenow responsible for ensuring they get their workdone correctly and efficiently? Here are somesuggestions for making the transition smoothly:• Set limits on your behavior. Some kinds ofbehavior that co-workers commonly engagein—gossiping, grumbling about work, choosingfriends—will interfere with your role assupervisor. Employees are counting on you to befair and objective. If some employees expectfavors based on friendship, they are not truefriends.• Don’t be a “rescuer.” Instead of jumping in to getthe work done whenever a problem arises, teachthe employees in your group to do the tasks youonce handled. Training can be harder than doingthe job yourself, but it builds a stronger workgroup.• Figure out how to measure success. How can youtell if each person is succeeding in terms of quality,cost, and timeliness? As a supervisor, you need tosee when employees are on track toward meetingtheir goals and when you need to step in.• Communicate with everyone. Make a point oftalking to each member of your work group sothat you can understand each person’s goals andeveryone knows what your expectations are. Showemployees how each person’s efforts benefit thewhole group.• Be firm. Sometimes employees “test” a newsupervisor to see if rules and standards will beenforced. If that happens, you will need to makeit clear that you are serious about the wholegroup’s success.• Learn from others. Get to know other supervisorsand managers who will share the wisdom gainedfrom their experience.Sources: Based on Brandi Britton, “Making the Movefrom Peer to Supervisor,” Los Angeles Business Journal,October 10, 2005; Ed Lisoski, “From Peer to Supervisor,”Supervision, May 2005, both downloaded from Business &Company Resource Center,
28 Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor See Learning Objective 7: Identify characteristics of a successful supervisor.See text page: 16
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