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Hazmat & Bioterrorism By: David Urquhart. Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Any substance which may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety of operating.

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Presentation on theme: "Hazmat & Bioterrorism By: David Urquhart. Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Any substance which may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety of operating."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hazmat & Bioterrorism By: David Urquhart


3 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Any substance which may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety of operating or emergency personnel, the public, and/or the environment if not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transportation.”

4 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Hazard: Anything posing an unreasonable risk to health and/or life safety.

5 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Exposure: A process by which people, animals and equipment come in contact with a hazardous material.

6 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Contamination: The direct transfer of a hazardous material by contact.

7 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Secondary Contamination: Indirect exposure where a contaminant is carried away from the “hot zone” and is transferred to another person or object.

8 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Asphyxiation: The consequence of not enough oxygen getting to the cells of the body to keep metabolism working. Normal concentration is 20.7% (sea level)

9 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) There are two processes to asphyxiation. 1. Simple/Physical:  Caused by decreased levels of oxygen in the air. Below 20.7%.  Not enough oxygen reaches the blood to be absorbed through the lungs.

10 Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Asphyxiation cont. 2. Chemical: Less oxygen being taken up by the blood in lungs due to the foreign gaseous substance being picked up by the blood in preference to oxygen Carbon Monoxide

11 HAZMAT Zones Hot Zone Contamination Present Appropriate PPE Limited number of personnel Everything inside considered contaminated Warm Zone Contamination Control Zone Appropriate PPE Decon Corridor Life-Saving Emergency Care Cold Zone CP Location Treatment/Transport Areas Staging Medical Monitoring/Rehab

12 Hazmat Training There are four levels of hazmat training in North America (NFPA) 1. Hazmat Awareness 2. Hazmat Operations 3. Hazmat Technician 4. Hazmat Specialist

13 Hazmat Awareness All responders who may arrive first on scene and discover hazardous substance Focus Recognition of HAZMAT incidents Basic identification techniques Personal protection

14 Hazmat Identification Ascertain the material involved if possible. Often one of the more difficult portions of hazmat.

15 Gathering Info Ascertain the following: Properties - Solids, gases, fluids Amounts - Kg’s or Lt’s Physical State - gaseous plume, pooling… Location of Release - Rear building, side of railcar…

16 Gathering Info Survey the incident. Identify hazardous materials if safe to do so. Your information is valuable. Your safety is the utmost priority.

17 Gathering Info Identify the presence and conditions of any containers involved Assess conditions at the scene  exposures  injuries  weather/wind direction

18 Typical hazards Typical hazards at hazmat scenes: Heat/cold related injuries Mechanical-explosions,falling objects etc Poison

19 Typical hazards Typical hazards at hazmat scenes: Corrosives Asphyxiation Psychological

20 Identification Occupancy and location: Production facilities Manufacturing plants Storage facilities Warehouses Loading docks….

21 Identification Drug labs: Very common Hard to find Very hazardous, considered hot zone.If contaminated, stay outside and notify!!

22 Identification Drug labs are mobile, static, hotel rooms, churches…. Very dangerous due to booby traps set.

23 Identification Transportation:  Railcars  Cargo trailers  Planes  Civilian vehicles…..

24 Railcar Identification Note placards Note DOT # Note hazard label Note pressurized tank (round ends)

25 Railcar Identification A pressurized railcar 170,000 Lt’s Fireball radius - 240m Min observation - 950m Evacuation - 4500m

26 Railcar Identification Note placards Note material label Note non-pressurized (flat ends)

27 Railcar Identification Non - pressurized 130,000 Lt’s Fireball radius -150m Min Observation - 800m Evacuation - 3800m

28 Cargo Trailers Note placards Note company name Note pressurized

29 Cargo Trailers Pressurized: 43,000 Lt’s Fireball radius - 80m Min.Observation - 320m Evacuation - 1800m Non Pressurized: 37,000 Lt’s Fireball radius 50m Min. observation - 250m Evacuation - 1000m

30 Hazmat References Container markings

31 Hazmat References Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS

32 Hazmat References Hazardous Material Vaults

33 Hazmat References WHMIS

34 Hazmat References Shipping papers

35 Hazmat References Placards

36 Hazmat References UN Number: these four digit numbers are specific to a chemical or chemical family tree

37 Hazmat References Driver If he hasn’t fled already!

38 Hazmat References Chemtrec 24 hr toll free 800-424-9300 Chemtel 24 hr toll free 800-255-3024 Poison Control 800-567-8911

39 Levels of Protection Level A (highest) Gas / liquid tight. Full encapsulating Portable oxygen within suit

40 Levels of Protection Level B High level of protection for respiratory, less for skin Portable oxygen outside hooded suit

41 Levels of Protection Level C Hooded chemical resistant suit Air purifying protection masks

42 Levels of Protection Level D Bunker gear, no special attire.

43 Decon Decon for fire fighters takes place in the “warm zone” The decon team may be dressed in a suit no more than one level lower than the hazmat team

44 Decon decon for civilians should be done expeditiously courteous (if possible) Victims should be naked or near naked by the end

45 Decon Emergency Decon is done in the hot zone and warm zone if life threatening. Have victims take as much clothing off as possible

46 Hospital Notification

47 Number of victims What contaminants are suspected What has been done already Vital signs / normal notification

48 Hospital Notification Possibility of moving a hazmat situation from one scene and creating another If mass casualty, the hospital may want to use a different location, such as arenas, town-halls, outdoors, etc.

49 Bioterrorism The waging of terrorism by using disease producing bacteria, virus, toxins to destroy crops, livestock and human life.

50 Bioterrorism History 14 th Century- Bubonic plague victims were catapulted over castle walls that were under siege. British introduced blankets previously used by smallpox victims to the French friendly native Indian population.

51 Bioterrorism Cont. 1930’s: The bio-warfare manufacturing era began. U.S., Japan, China and Germany all producing bio-weapons. Japan used Anthrax on POW’s to test it’s effectiveness and limitations

52 Bioterrorism Cont. China experimented with ceramic bombs filled with plague infected fleas.These bombs were dropped on small villages, inducing the plague. 1943: By this time the U.S. had 7 incapacitating lethal agents in their stockpile.

53 Bioterrorism Cont. By 1969 President Nixon renounced bio- weapons and had all stocks and seeds destroyed 1980’s, Russia had stockpiled 1500 metric tonnes of plague for their ICBM’s

54 Bioterrorism Cont. 1995 – Japan Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. 12 Dead 6000 injured

55 Bioterrorism Cont. 2001 U.S. Anthrax mailed to politicians and celebrities 5 dead 22 sick

56 Bioterrorism Cont. Indicators of terrorist activity: Unusual number of sick humans/animals Health care facilities reporting multiple signs and symptoms Unusual spray devices

57 Potential Targets Public buildings Mass transit systems High economic impact Telecomm facilities Military Airports lndustrial facilities Public assemblies



60 Bibliography Temple University: Pages/PowerPoint.html Hazmat Response Book 2002 NFPA Surviving the Hazmat Incident 1990 Essentials of Paramedic Care 2003 Hazmat Operations Manual JI 2003


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