Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Any substance which may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety of operating or emergency personnel, the public, and/or the environment if not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transportation.”
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Hazard: Anything posing an unreasonable risk to health and/or life safety.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Exposure: A process by which people, animals and equipment come in contact with a hazardous material.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Contamination: The direct transfer of a hazardous material by contact.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Secondary Contamination: Indirect exposure where a contaminant is carried away from the “hot zone” and is transferred to another person or object.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Asphyxiation: The consequence of not enough oxygen getting to the cells of the body to keep metabolism working. Normal concentration is 20.7% (sea level)
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) There are two processes to asphyxiation. 1. Simple/Physical: Caused by decreased levels of oxygen in the air. Below 20.7%. Not enough oxygen reaches the blood to be absorbed through the lungs.
Hazmat Terms ( USDOT) Asphyxiation cont. 2. Chemical: Less oxygen being taken up by the blood in lungs due to the foreign gaseous substance being picked up by the blood in preference to oxygen Carbon Monoxide
HAZMAT Zones Hot Zone Contamination Present Appropriate PPE Limited number of personnel Everything inside considered contaminated Warm Zone Contamination Control Zone Appropriate PPE Decon Corridor Life-Saving Emergency Care Cold Zone CP Location Treatment/Transport Areas Staging Medical Monitoring/Rehab
Hazmat Training There are four levels of hazmat training in North America (NFPA) 1. Hazmat Awareness 2. Hazmat Operations 3. Hazmat Technician 4. Hazmat Specialist
Hazmat Awareness All responders who may arrive first on scene and discover hazardous substance Focus Recognition of HAZMAT incidents Basic identification techniques Personal protection
Hazmat Identification Ascertain the material involved if possible. Often one of the more difficult portions of hazmat.
Gathering Info Ascertain the following: Properties - Solids, gases, fluids Amounts - Kg’s or Lt’s Physical State - gaseous plume, pooling… Location of Release - Rear building, side of railcar…
Gathering Info Survey the incident. Identify hazardous materials if safe to do so. Your information is valuable. Your safety is the utmost priority.
Gathering Info Identify the presence and conditions of any containers involved Assess conditions at the scene exposures injuries weather/wind direction
Typical hazards Typical hazards at hazmat scenes: Heat/cold related injuries Mechanical-explosions,falling objects etc Poison
Number of victims What contaminants are suspected What has been done already Vital signs / normal notification
Hospital Notification Possibility of moving a hazmat situation from one scene and creating another If mass casualty, the hospital may want to use a different location, such as arenas, town-halls, outdoors, etc.
Bioterrorism The waging of terrorism by using disease producing bacteria, virus, toxins to destroy crops, livestock and human life.
Bioterrorism History 14 th Century- Bubonic plague victims were catapulted over castle walls that were under siege. British introduced blankets previously used by smallpox victims to the French friendly native Indian population.
Bioterrorism Cont. 1930’s: The bio-warfare manufacturing era began. U.S., Japan, China and Germany all producing bio-weapons. Japan used Anthrax on POW’s to test it’s effectiveness and limitations
Bioterrorism Cont. China experimented with ceramic bombs filled with plague infected fleas.These bombs were dropped on small villages, inducing the plague. 1943: By this time the U.S. had 7 incapacitating lethal agents in their stockpile.
Bioterrorism Cont. By 1969 President Nixon renounced bio- weapons and had all stocks and seeds destroyed 1980’s, Russia had stockpiled 1500 metric tonnes of plague for their ICBM’s
Bioterrorism Cont. 1995 – Japan Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. 12 Dead 6000 injured
Bioterrorism Cont. 2001 U.S. Anthrax mailed to politicians and celebrities 5 dead 22 sick
Bioterrorism Cont. Indicators of terrorist activity: Unusual number of sick humans/animals Health care facilities reporting multiple signs and symptoms Unusual spray devices
Potential Targets Public buildings Mass transit systems High economic impact Telecomm facilities Military Airports lndustrial facilities Public assemblies