Presentation on theme: "Principles of Decontamination. Objectives Define contamination and decontamination Differentiate between the concepts of exposure and contamination Identify."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Define contamination and decontamination Differentiate between the concepts of exposure and contamination Identify the different types of contaminants and routes of contamination
Principles of Decontamination Objectives Identify the physical and chemical methods of decontamination Describe the Hazard Control Zones Identify three levels of PPE and Special Equipment for decontamination List health care considerations for handling a contaminated patient
Principles of Decontamination Case Presentation January 6, 2005
Principles of Decontamination Case Presentation 8 people die, many more exposed when a train carrying chlorine crashed, rupturing one of its tankers and releasing the toxic gas into the air. There were at least three hazardous chemicals on the train but officials were most concerned about the chlorine gas, which affects respiratory and central nervous systems. It can damage the throat, nose, eyes and can cause death.
Principles of Decontamination Case Presentation Decontamination sites set up at nearby schools. Officials did not know how many people had been decontaminated at USC- Aiken and Midland Valley High School. At the university, two tents were set up. In one tent, people exposed to the chemicals removed their clothes and were washed down.
Principles of Decontamination Case Presentation They then moved to a second tent where they were given medical attention. Some were sent to the hospital. The process involved giving people fluid and oxygen to clear airways and showers to remove chemical residue.
Principles of Decontamination A Different Scenario March 19, 1995, in a crowded Tokyo subway station, religious fanatics set off a Sarin gas bomb. Hundreds of people were exposed, covered with the residue and breathing in this toxic gas
Principles of Decontamination A Different Scenario 80% of the exposed victims ran to the nearest ED 100/472 healthcare workers showed signs of exposure and had to be treated-one was hospitalized
Principles of Decontamination A Different Scenario Most do not wait This is why you need to know the basics, because you could be one of those healthcare workers!
Principles of Decontamination Contamination Contamination is any form of hazardous material that physically remains on people, animals, or objects. Forms of contaminants include: solids liquids gases
Principles of Decontamination Exposure Exposure means that a person has been subjected to a toxic or harmful physical agent through any route of entry into the body Several routes of entry into the body: Skin absorption Ingestion Inhalation Injection Open wound contact
Principles of Decontamination Exposure vs. Contamination a person who has been contaminated has not necessarily been exposed. The term exposure is used to distinguish between simple contact and a contact with the potential of causing harm or sickness.
Principles of Decontamination Contamination Routes Direct Contamination occurs through direct contact with the contaminant. Cross Contamination occurs when an uncontaminated (“clean”) person or thing comes into direct contact with a contaminated (“dirty”) person, animal or object.
Principles of Decontamination Contamination Routes Surface Permeation
Principles of Decontamination Contamination Routes Permeation toxicity is determined by: Contact Time Concentration Temperature Physical State
Principles of Decontamination Special Equipment Positive and Negative Pressure Rooms Fixed Ventilation Systems Safety Showers Eyewash Stations
Principles of Decontamination Health Care Considerations Patient should be fully decontaminated prior to transportation to a medical facility Receiving medical staff should be notified when handling a contaminated patient Patient should be wrapped in disposable fabric bags to prevent spread of any remaining contaminants Fatalities should be handled with same decon procedures
Principles of Decontamination Health care facility-based decontamination is markedly different from field operations Health care workers are faced with medical emergencies in potentially contaminated patients Ambulatory patients are unlikely to wait for hazardous materials teams for transport Health Care Considerations
Principles of Decontamination OSHA has specified that health care facility personnel decontaminating patients must be trained to operations level Health Care Considerations
Principles of Decontamination This completes the current presentation.