2Process of PregnancyPregnancy begins the moment sperm fertilizes an ovum in the fallopian tubesFrom there, the single cell multiplies, becoming a sphere-shaped cluster of cells as it travels toward the uterus, a journey that lasts three to four days.The embryo will then burrow into the thick spongy endometrium and is nourished from this lining
3Early signs of pregnancy 1st sign- usually missed period(although some women “spot” in early pregnancy)Other signs of pregnancy include:Breast tendernessEmotional upsetExtreme fatigueNauseaSleeplessnessvomiting
4Due Date Pregnancy typically lasts 40 weeks The due date is calculated from the expectant mothers last menstrual period.Pregnancy is typically divided into three phases or trimesters, of approximately three months each
5The First Trimester Few noticeable changes in mothers body Expectant mother may urinate more quickly, experience morning sickness, swollen breasts, or undue fatigueDuring first 2 months after conception, the embryo differentiates and develops its various organ systems, beginning with the nervous and circulatory systemsAt the start of 3rd month the embryo is called a fetus, indicating that all organ systems are in place.
6The Second TrimesterPhysical changes in the mother become more visible: breast swell, waistline thickens.Placenta ( network of blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and fetal waste products to the mother) becomes established
7The Third Trimester End of 6th month through 9th month Period of greatest fetal growth when fetus gains most of its weightDuring this time fetus must get large amounts of calcium, iron, and nitrogen from mothers food.About 85% of calcium and iron mother digests goes into fetal bloodstreamFetus may live if born during 7th month however during 8th month layer of fat and organs especially respiratory and digestive organs develop to full potentialBabies born prematurely usually require intensive medical care
8“Fourth Trimester”Known as the first six weeks of an infants life outside the womb.
9Prenatal Testing And Screening Amnioentesis- medical test in which a small amount of fluid is drawn from the amniotic sac. This test can reveal presence of 40 genetic abnormalities, includingDown syndromTay-Sachs- fatal disorder of nervous systemSickle-cell anemia- debilitation blood disorderCan also reveal sex of childChances of fetal damage and miscarriage as result of testing are 1 in 400
10UltrasoundHigh frequency sound waves to determine the size and position of the fetus.Can also detect defects in central nervous system and digestive system of fetusAssists practitioners in performing amniocentesis and delivering child
11Labor and DeliveryDuring the few weeks before delivery, baby normally shifts and turns head down, and cervix begins to dilate. The junction of public bones also loosens to permit expansion of pelvic girdle during birth
12Birth Process- 3 Stages 1st Stage~ Amniotic sac breaks causing rush of fluid from vaginaContractions in abdomen and lower backEarly contractions push baby downward putting pressure on cervix and dilating it furtherMay last from a couple of hours to more than a day for a first birth, usually much shorter during subsequent births
13Transition- End of First Stage of Labor Process during which cervix becomes fully dilated and baby's head begins to move into the vagina or the birth canal. Contractions usually come quickly during transition which generally lasts 30 minutes or less.
14Second Stage Cervix becomes fully dilated Contractions become rhythmic,stronger, and more painful as uterus works to push baby through birth canalLasts 1-4 hours and concludes when infant is finally pushed out of mothers body.In some cases practitioner will do an episiotomy- straight incision in mothers perineum to prevent babys head from tearing vaginal tissues and speed babys exit from vaginalSometimes women can avoid this by exercising and good nutrition, trying different birth positions, having attendant massage perineal tissue..After delivery attending practioner cleans baby痴 mucus-filled breathing passages, and baby takes first breath generally accompanied by a cry.Umbilical cord is then tied and severedStump of cord attached to babys navel dries up and drops off within days
15Third Stage of Labor Placenta or afterbirth is expelled from the womb Usually completed within 30 minutes after delivery
16ComplicationsCesarean Section ( C-Section)Surgical procedure in which a baby is removed through an incision made in the mothers abdominal and uterine walls. Usually occurs when:Labor lasts too longBaby is presenting wrongmaternal blood pressure falls rapidlyPlacenta separates from uterus too soonCan be traumatic for mother and recovery from birth takes longer
17Complications cont. Miscarriage- loss of fetus 1 in 10 pregnancies 70%-90% of women eventually become pregnant againCauses: fertilized egg fails to divide correctly, maternal illness, genetic abnormalities, infections,maternal hormonal imbalance and ECTOPIC PREGNANCY- implantation of fertilized egg outside uterus usually in fallopian tube- can lead to death from hemorrhage for mother. Pregnancies are surgically terminated and often fallopian tube is also removed.
18Complications cont.Stillbirth- birth of a dead babyOften for no apparent reasonSudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) sudden death of infant under one year of age for no apparent reason.Leading cause of death for children aged one month to one yearAffects 1 in 1,000 infantsSudden and silentDeath occurs quicklyOften associated with sleep and no signs of sufferingCause is unknown
19Complications cont. Infertility- difficulties in conceiving PID Older womanEndometriosis- disorder in which uterine lining tissue establishes itself outside uterus; leading cause of infertility in USPID