Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy. Process of Pregnancy Pregnancy begins the moment sperm fertilizes an ovum in the fallopian tubes From there, the single cell multiplies, becoming."— Presentation transcript:
Process of Pregnancy Pregnancy begins the moment sperm fertilizes an ovum in the fallopian tubes From there, the single cell multiplies, becoming a sphere-shaped cluster of cells as it travels toward the uterus, a journey that lasts three to four days. The embryo will then burrow into the thick spongy endometrium and is nourished from this lining
Early signs of pregnancy 1 st sign- usually missed period(although some women “spot” in early pregnancy) Other signs of pregnancy include: Breast tenderness Emotional upset Extreme fatigue Nausea Sleeplessness vomiting
Due Date Pregnancy typically lasts 40 weeks The due date is calculated from the expectant mothers last menstrual period. Pregnancy is typically divided into three phases or trimesters, of approximately three months each
The First Trimester Few noticeable changes in mothers body Expectant mother may urinate more quickly, experience morning sickness, swollen breasts, or undue fatigue During first 2 months after conception, the embryo differentiates and develops its various organ systems, beginning with the nervous and circulatory systems At the start of 3 rd month the embryo is called a fetus, indicating that all organ systems are in place.
The Second Trimester Physical changes in the mother become more visible: breast swell, waistline thickens. Placenta ( network of blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and fetal waste products to the mother) becomes established
The Third Trimester End of 6 th month through 9 th month Period of greatest fetal growth when fetus gains most of its weight During this time fetus must get large amounts of calcium, iron, and nitrogen from mothers food. About 85% of calcium and iron mother digests goes into fetal bloodstream Fetus may live if born during 7 th month however during 8 th month layer of fat and organs especially respiratory and digestive organs develop to full potential Babies born prematurely usually require intensive medical care
“Fourth Trimester” Known as the first six weeks of an infants life outside the womb.
Prenatal Testing And Screening Amnioentesis- medical test in which a small amount of fluid is drawn from the amniotic sac. This test can reveal presence of 40 genetic abnormalities, including Down syndrom Tay-Sachs- fatal disorder of nervous system Sickle-cell anemia- debilitation blood disorder Can also reveal sex of child Chances of fetal damage and miscarriage as result of testing are 1 in 400
Ultrasound High frequency sound waves to determine the size and position of the fetus. Can also detect defects in central nervous system and digestive system of fetus Assists practitioners in performing amniocentesis and delivering child
Labor and Delivery During the few weeks before delivery, baby normally shifts and turns head down, and cervix begins to dilate. The junction of public bones also loosens to permit expansion of pelvic girdle during birth
Birth Process- 3 Stages 1st Stage~ Amniotic sac breaks causing rush of fluid from vagina Contractions in abdomen and lower back Early contractions push baby downward putting pressure on cervix and dilating it further May last from a couple of hours to more than a day for a first birth, usually much shorter during subsequent births
Transition- End of First Stage of Labor Process during which cervix becomes fully dilated and baby's head begins to move into the vagina or the birth canal. Contractions usually come quickly during transition which generally lasts 30 minutes or less.
Second Stage Cervix becomes fully dilated Contractions become rhythmic,stronger, and more painful as uterus works to push baby through birth canal Lasts 1-4 hours and concludes when infant is finally pushed out of mothers body. In some cases practitioner will do an episiotomy- straight incision in mothers perineum to prevent babys head from tearing vaginal tissues and speed babys exit from vaginal Sometimes women can avoid this by exercising and good nutrition, trying different birth positions, having attendant massage perineal tissue.. After delivery attending practioner cleans baby 痴 mucus-filled breathing passages, and baby takes first breath generally accompanied by a cry. Umbilical cord is then tied and severed Stump of cord attached to babys navel dries up and drops off within days
Third Stage of Labor Placenta or afterbirth is expelled from the womb Usually completed within 30 minutes after delivery
Complications Cesarean Section ( C-Section)Surgical procedure in which a baby is removed through an incision made in the mothers abdominal and uterine walls. Usually occurs when: Labor lasts too long Baby is presenting wrong maternal blood pressure falls rapidly Placenta separates from uterus too soon Can be traumatic for mother and recovery from birth takes longer
Complications cont. Miscarriage- loss of fetus 1 in 10 pregnancies 70%-90% of women eventually become pregnant again Causes: fertilized egg fails to divide correctly, maternal illness, genetic abnormalities, infections,maternal hormonal imbalance and ECTOPIC PREGNANCY- implantation of fertilized egg outside uterus usually in fallopian tube- can lead to death from hemorrhage for mother. Pregnancies are surgically terminated and often fallopian tube is also removed.
Complications cont. Stillbirth- birth of a dead babyOften for no apparent reason Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) sudden death of infant under one year of age for no apparent reason. Leading cause of death for children aged one month to one year Affects 1 in 1,000 infants Sudden and silent Death occurs quickly Often associated with sleep and no signs of suffering Cause is unknown
Complications cont. Infertility- difficulties in conceiving Older woman Endometriosis- disorder in which uterine lining tissue establishes itself outside uterus; leading cause of infertility in US PID