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Pregnancy and Childbirth. The Beginning of the Life Cycle Fertilization or Conception the process of the sperm cell joining with the egg. This process.

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Childbirth. The Beginning of the Life Cycle Fertilization or Conception the process of the sperm cell joining with the egg. This process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Childbirth

2 The Beginning of the Life Cycle Fertilization or Conception the process of the sperm cell joining with the egg. This process occurs in the fallopian tube and within seconds, the surface of the egg changes so that no more sperm can enter the egg.

3 The Beginning of the Life Cycle Zygote the united egg and sperm. The zygote travels through the fallopian tube and begins to divide. Embryo the two-cell stage that lasts about 9 weeks after fertilization.

4 The Beginning of the Life Cycle Blastocyst a hollow, spherical structure made up of cells, formed when an embryo divides and grows. After 5 days after fertilization, the blastocyst has reached the uterus. Implantation the process in which the blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus.

5 Development in the Uterus After implantation, development continues in the uterus. Three structures-the amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord-protect and nourish the developing embryo, and later the fetus.

6 Development in the Uterus Amniotic Sac fluid filled bag of thin tissue. The sac continues to grow in size as the embryo grows. Inside the sac, the embryo floats in amniotic fluid. Placenta the structure that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterus. Within the placenta, oxygen and nutrients move from the mother’s blood into tiny blood vessels that lead to the embryo.

7 Development in the Uterus Umbilical Cord the ropelike structure that connects the embryo and the placenta. This cord is the embryo’s lifeline. It carries nutrients and oxygen from the placenta to the embryo and wastes from the embryo to the placenta.

8 Development in the Uterus The Growing Embryo during the first 2 months of development, the major body systems and organs start to form. By the end of these 8 weeks, the embryo is about an inch long.

9 Development in the Uterus The Fetus a developing human from the third month until birth. During these months, the fetus begins to move and kick. The size of the fetus will also increase significantly. By the end of the ninth month, the fetus is ready to be born.

10 Development in the Uterus

11 A Healthy Pregnancy Proper nutrition – consuming about 300 more calories a day Important nutrients – folic acid, protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A and B complex Exercise

12 A Healthy Pregnancy Avoid alcohol and other drugs (tobacco, OTC, prescription, and illegal drugs) Avoid environmental hazards (x-rays, lead, mercury and cat litter) Prenatal Care medical care during pregnancy

13 Prenatal Care Ultrasound high-frequency sound waves used to create an image of a developing fetus. This allows the doctor to tell the age of the fetus, whether it is a boy or a girl and if the heart, muscles, and bones are developing normally. Chronic Villus Sampling (CVS) a prenatal test in which a piece of the developing placenta is removed to detect inherited disorders in the embryo.

14 Prenatal Care Amniocentesis a prenatal test in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is removed and tested for abnormalities. CVS and Amniocentesis are both optional tests that are performed when the fetus is at high risk for a genetic disorder or if the mother is over the age of 35.

15 Complications during Pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy the blastocyst implants in the fallopian tube instead of the uterus. Miscarriage the death of an embryo or fetus in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

16 Complications during Pregnancy Preeclampsia a serious condition characterized by high blood pressure, swelling of the wrists and ankles, and high levels of protein in the urine. This condition can prevent the fetus from getting enough oxygen.

17 Complications during Pregnancy Gestational Diabetes diabetes that develops in pregnant women. It is marked by high blood sugar levels in the mother and excess blood sugar can pass to the fetus, which could cause the fetus to grow too large and increase the risk of a difficult birth.

18 Childbirth The Birth Process Labor the work performed by the mother’s body to push the fetus out. May last from about 2-24 hours or longer Strong contractions of the uterus cause the cervix to dilate Contractions may be minutes apart, lasting seconds Near the end of this stage, the amniotic sac breaks and the cervix becomes softer and wide enough (10 cm) for the fetus to pass through

19 Childbirth The Birth Process Delivery of the Baby This stage can take from half an hour to more than 2 hours Contractions of the uterus continue Appearance of the head first, known as crowning

20 Childbirth The Birth Process The baby is pushed out Umbilical cord is cut and clamped Baby’s nose and mouth are suctioned to remove mucus Eye drops are given to prevent infection

21 Childbirth The Birth Process Delivery of the Afterbirth Contractions of the uterus push out the remainder of the umbilical cord and the placenta This stage typically takes about minutes

22 Postpartum Period a period of adjustment for the parents and their newborn that occurs for the first 6 weeks after the birth. Changes for the newborn: Lungs are functioning for the first time Baby is now getting oxygen from the air Nervous system is experiencing new sensations Bonding with mother and father

23 Postpartum Period Changes for the mother: Hormone levels signal the breasts to produce milk and cause the uterus to gradually shrink back to its normal size. Hormone changes and fatigue can cause feelings of being overwhelmed or sadness. Extreme sadness or withdrawal from the baby that lasts longer is known as postpartum depression.

24 Complications at Birth Stillbirth occurs when a fetus dies and is expelled from the body after the twentieth week of pregnancy. Cesarean Section is a surgical method of birth. The doctor makes an incision in the lower abdomen into the uterus. The baby and placenta are then removed.

25 Complications at Birth Premature birth delivery of a live baby before the 37 th week of pregnancy. Low birthweight a newborn that weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth. *Premature and low birthweight babies face an increased risk of health problems.

26 Multiple Births Identical Twins Are twins that develop from a single fertilized egg. The embryo divides into two identical embryos. Identical twins have the same inherited traits and are the same sex.

27 Multiple Births Fraternal Twins When two eggs are released from the ovary and are fertilized by two sperm. Fraternal twins are no more alike than any other siblings, and they may or may not be the same sex.

28 Multiple Births Triplets or More Triplets, quadruplets, and other multiple births are less common than twins. The number of births with three or more babies has increased over the last 25 years.


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