2 The Beginning of the Life Cycle Fertilization/ConceptionThe process of sperm meeting with an egg in the Fallopian tubeOnce an egg is fertilized it becomes a zygoteZygote = fertilized egg (sperm meeting the egg)The zygote travels through the fallopian tube and begins to divide
3 The Beginning of the Life Cycle The zygote divides many times and becomes a blastocyst (hollow cluster of cells) by the time it gets to the uterusImplantation occurs. Implantation is the process in which the blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterusZygote is now called an embryo (occurs days after fertilization)
4 Development of the Uterus After implantation, development continues in the uterusThree structures form from the dividing cells: the amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord (All three serve to protect and nourish the developing embryo, and later the fetus)
5 Development in the Uterus Amniotic SacFluid filled bag of thin tissue. The sac continues to grow in size as the embryo grows.Inside the sac, the embryo floats in amniotic fluidPlacentaThe structure that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterusWithin the placenta, oxygen and nutrients move from the mother’s blood into tiny blood vessels that lead to the embryo
6 Development of the Uterus Umbilical CordA ropelike structure that connects the embryo to the placentaThis cord is the embryo’s lifelineIt carries nutrients and oxygen from the placenta to the embryo and wastes from the embryo to the placenta
7 Development of a Uterus WEEK 1-8 = EmbryoWeek 9-Birth = FetusPregnancy term= lasts between weeksPregnancy Calendar (kids health)
8 Development of the Uterus Trimesters0-13 weeks = 1st Trimester14-26 weeks = 2nd Trimester27-40 weeks = 3rd Trimester
15 Week by Week Pregnancyndar_intro.html?tracking=79986_G%20-%20cat32
16 Birth (3 stages) Dilation- stretching of the cervix (10cm) Stage One (Labor)Dilation- stretching of the cervix (10cm)May last for a few hoursContractions to shorten the uterusLongest most difficult part of laborNear the end of this stage, the amniotic sac breaks and the cervix becomes softer and wide enough (10 cm) for the fetus to pass through
17 Birth (3 Stages) Stage Two (Delivery of the Baby) Birth: muscles of the uterus contract and push baby out of the bodyUmbilical cord is clamped and cutAppearance of the head first, known as crowningStage Three (After Birth)Afterbirth: contractions continue and push placenta and umbilical cord out of the mother
18 Complications during Birth Premature birthDelivery of a live baby before the 37th week of pregnancyLow birth weightA newborn that weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth.*Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of health problemsStill Birth* occurs when a fetus dies and is removed from the body after the 20th week of pregnancy.
19 Complications during Birth Cesarean SectionThis method can be the family’s choice of delivery or what is called an emergency “cesarean section” or “C-Section”.The doctor makes an incision in the lower abdomen into the uterus. The baby and placenta are then removed.
20 Complications during Birth JaundiceA common condition in newborns.Refers to the yellow color of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by excess bilirubin in the blood.Miscarriagethe death of an embryo or fetus in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.
22 Having a Healthy Pregnancy Avoid drugs (tobacco, OTC, prescription, and illegal drugs) = Low birth weight/possible premature birthExerciseEat a variety of healthy foods (avoid uncooked meats, deli meats, fish, seafood, caffeine)
23 Signs of Pregnancy “Morning Sickness” Nipples darken Increased fatigue Appear a few weeks or 1-2 months after conception/fertilization“Morning Sickness”Nipples darkenIncreased fatigueMenstruation usually stopsPMS - type symptomsIncreased urination
24 Pregnancy TestReveals hormone HCG in urine about 2 weeks after missed period - about 95% accurateA blood test also detects HCGHome tests give false negatives and positives. Should be followed up by a doctor visit