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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Birth. THE BEGINNING OF THE LIFE CYCLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Birth


3 Fertilization / Conception When the males sperm enters the females egg 1 sperm / 1 egg Within seconds of fertilization, the surface of the egg changes so that no more sperm may enter the egg

4 Zygote The united egg and sperm Within 36 hours, while the zygote is in the fallopian tube, it begins to divide

5 Cell Division The original cell divides to make 2 cells 2  4 4  8 8  16, etc. From the 2 cell stage until about 9 weeks after fertilization, the growing structure is called an embryo


7 The Blastocyst 5 days after fertilization, the embryo reaches the uterus Floats free 50 to 100 cells Blastocyst – sphere of cells surrounding a hollow center

8 Implantation Once the blastocyst forms, it implants itself in the uterus  implantation


10 Amniotic Sac After implantation, a fluid-filled bag of thin tissue called the amniotic sac develops around the embryo It grows as the embryo grows Embryo floats in amniotic fluid

11 Placenta The attachment that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterus Here, oxygen and nutrients move from the mothers blood into the embryo Dangerous substances can pass from mother to embryo, too – Alcohol, drugs, chemicals


13 Umbilical Cord 25 days Ropelike structure Connects embryo to placenta The embryo’s lifeline Carry nutrients and oxygen from the placenta to the embryo Carry wastes from the embryo to the placenta


15 The Growing Embryo During the first 2 months: – Major body systems and organs form Heart, Blood vessels, Kidneys, Endocrine glands At the end of 2 months: – Embryo is an inch long – Recognizable external features Eyes, ears, arms, legs – Head makes up 50% of embryo

16 The Fetus From the 3 rd month until birth, the developing human is called a fetus 3 rd to 6 th months – begins to kick – Skeleton and muscles are developing Nervous system matures – Sense organs begin functioning Fetus becomes sensitive to light and sound Alternates periods of activity with sleep

17 The Fetus 7 th to 9 th months – Body size increases; more proportionate – Body fat accumulates – Eyelids open and close End of 9 th month – Fetus is ready to be born

18 Worksheet Word Bank Fertilization Blastocyst Fertilization Early Cell Division Blastocyst & Implantation Late Cell Division Embryo Cervix Vagina Amniotic Sac Developing Placenta Amniotic Fluid Uterine Wall Umbilical Cord


20 Staying Healthy During Pregnancy Proper nutrition – “eating for two” Exercise – Better meet the energy needs of carrying a baby Avoiding alcohol and other drugs – Harm, kill, decrease chance to live, lifelong problems Avoiding environmental hazards – X-rays, lead, mercury (fish), cat litter (parasites)

21 Prenatal Care Medical care during pregnancy Obstetrician – doctor specialized in pregnancy and childbirth The chances of having a healthy baby greatly increases with regular doctor checkups throughout pregnancy

22 3 Trimesters Pregnancy is divided into 3 periods of time Each is about 3 months long 1 st trimester  0-3 months 2 nd trimester  3-6 months 3 rd trimester  6-9 months

23 Monitoring Tools Ultrasound – High-frequency sound waves that produce an image of the fetus Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) – At 8 weeks, dr. removes part of the placenta to check for abnormalities/disease Amniocentesis – weeks, inserting a needle in the abdomen and uterus to remove amniotic fluid to test for abnormalities


25 Complications Ectopic pregnancy – Blastocyst implants in the fallopian tube, not the uterus Miscarriage – Death of embryo or fetus in first 20 weeks Preeclampsia – High BP, swelling of wrists & ankles, high levels of protein in urine  prevents fetus from getting O 2 Gestational diabetes – Developing diabetes while pregnant


27 The Birth Process 1.Labor 2.Delivery of the baby 3.Delivery of the afterbirth

28 Labor Work performed by the mother’s body to push the fetus out 2 to 24 hours or longer Uterus contracts, causing the cervix to increase in width, or dilate Amniotic sac will break Cervix becomes softer and wider too allow the fetus to pass through

29 Delivery of Baby Actual birth, or delivery of baby Lasts 30 minutes to more than 2 hours Baby usually exits head first through vagina Once the baby is out: – Dr. clamps and cuts the umbilical cord – Baby’s nose & mouth are suctioned to remove mucus and make it easier to breath – Eye drops are given to prevent infection – Injection of vitamin K to prevent excess bleeding from umbilical cord

30 Delivery of Afterbirth Though the baby is born, the birth process is not complete Uterus contractions push out the placenta 15 to 30 minutes


32 Complications at Birth Surgical delivery Premature birth Low birth weight Birth of more than one baby

33 Surgical Delivery Sometimes delivery through the cervix and vagina is not possible due to the position of the fetus or the narrowness of the mothers hips Illness or other conditions that make vaginal delivery dangerous for mother and/or baby

34 Cesarean Section Surgical method of birth Doctor makes an incision in the lower abdomen into the uterus Then removes the fetus and placenta

35 Premature Birth Baby is born before it is fully developed Before the 37 th week of pregnancy Earlier birth  more problems Lungs are usually not developed Receive care in an incubator


37 Low Birth Weight Less than 5.5 pounds May also be premature May be full-term, just didn’t grow enough before birth Increased risk of health problems as a newborn, chronic lifelong problems, death

38 Multiple Births The delivery of more than one baby – Twins – Triplets – Quadruplets Carry greater risk to mother and babies

39 Identical Twins Develop from single fertilized egg Embryo divides into 2 identical embryos Because they divide from identical embryos, they have the same inherited traits and are the same sex

40 Fraternal Twins Sometimes 2 eggs are released from the ovary and fertilized by 2 sperm Fraternal twins are no more alike than any other siblings May or may not be the same sex


42 Triplets or More Less common than twins Number of cases has dramatically increased in the last 25 years

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