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Cells: The Building Blocks of Life By Adam Liu Life is Cellular What is a cell? A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells: The Building Blocks of Life By Adam Liu Life is Cellular What is a cell? A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cells: The Building Blocks of Life By Adam Liu

3 Life is Cellular What is a cell? A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things. The Cell Theory All living things are made of one or more cells. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. The cell is the smallest form of life. skin cells

4 Basic Cell Organization Eukaryotes Contain nuclei, a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and specialized organelles Single-celled or multicellular Includes all plants, animals, fungi, and many microorganisms Prokaryotes Generally smaller than eukaryotes and relatively simple Have cell membranes and cytoplasm but no nucleus Includes all bacteria Carry out every activity associated with life Click Below! Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, and Viruses Tutorial

5 Prokaryotic Cells vs. Eukaryotic Cells

6 Cell Shape and Function Diversity is key Cells can also be categorized by their shape and function. Different cells are shaped to do different things. Nerve cells Thread-like supports Cytoplasmic extensions Aids brain function nerve cells (neurons)

7 Cell Shape and Function Xylem cells Tubular in shape Conducts water from the roots to the leaves Patterned cell wall Spiral thickening in cell wall prevents collapse xylem cells

8 Structure and Function of a Cell Looking inside a cell Just like certain cells perform different tasks, each cell has structures inside that carry out their own jobs, as well. Organelles Specialized structures that perform important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell “Tiny organs” Click Below! Cell Structure Electron Micrographs

9 Inside an Animal Cell Click Below! Animal Cell Tour

10 Inside a Plant Cell Click Below! Plant Cell Tour

11 Comparing Cell Structures StructureProkaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells AnimalPlant Plasma MembraneYes NucleusNoYes Endoplasmic Reticulum NoYes RibosomesYes Golgi ApparatusNoYes MitochondriaNoYes LysosomesNoYesNo VacuolesNoSmall or noneYes CytoskeletonNoYes CentriolesNoYesNo PlastidsNo Yes Cell WallYesNoYes

12 Plasma Membrane Functions Regulates what enters and leaves the cell Provides protection and support Properties Lipid bilayer- tough flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings. Protein molecules- forms channels and pumps that help to move material across the cell membrane Carbohydrate molecules- allows cells to chemically identify one another plasma membrane

13 Plasma Membrane

14 Nucleus Functions Controls most cell processes Contains hereditary information of DNA Properties Found in almost all eukaryotic cells, including plant and animal cells Chromatin and chromosomes- contains the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next Nucleolus- small dense region where the assembly of ribosomes begins Nuclear envelope- contains nuclear pores that allow material to move into and out of the nucleus nucleus

15 Nucleus

16 Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions Assembles components of the plasma membrane Properties Rough endoplasmic reticulum- studded with ribosomes that synthesize proteins Smooth endoplasmic reticulum- contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks, such as a synthesis of lipids rough ER

17 Rough ER vs. Smooth ER rough ER smooth ER

18 Ribosomes Functions Produces proteins following coded instructions from the nucleus Properties Small particles of RNA and protein About micometers in diameter ribosomes

19 Ribosomes

20 Golgi Apparatus Functions Enzymes attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins Properties Stack of membranes that receives proteins produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum golgi apparatus

21 Golgi Apparatus

22 Mitochondria Functions Uses energy from food to make high-energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement Properties Enclosed by two envelope membranes, an outer membrane and a folded inner membrane Found in nearly all eukaryotic cells, including those of plants and algae mitochondria

23 Mitochondria

24 Lysosomes Functions Breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles that can be used by the rest of the cell Breaks down organelles that have outlived their usefulness Removes debris Properties Found in animal cells, not plant cells Small organelles filled with enzymes lysosome

25 Lysosomes

26 Vacuoles Functions Storage for materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates Properties Many plant cells have a single large, central vacuole filled with liquid Also found in single-celled organisms and in animals Vesicles- smaller vacuoles involved in transporting substances within a cell vacuole

27 Vacuoles

28 Cytoskeleton Functions Helps the cell maintain its shape Moves organelles within the cell Involved in many forms of cell movement Properties Network of protein filaments Microtubules- maintains cell shape and serves as “tracks” along which organelles are moved Cilia and flagella- microtubules form hair-like projections that enable cells to swim through liquids Microfilaments- produces a tough, flexible framework that supports the cell cytoskeleton

29 Cytoskeleton

30 Centrioles Functions Separates chromosomes during cell division Properties Found in animal cells, not plant cells Two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope centriole

31 Centrioles

32 Plastids Functions Synthesis Storage of food Properties Found in plant cells, not animal or fungal cells Chloroplasts- uses the energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules through photosynthesis, contains the green pigment chlorophyll Chromoplasts- contains colored pigments in (orange, red, yellow) in the cells of fruits and flowers Leucoplasts- stores carbohydrates formed during photosynthesis in the form of starch chloroplast

33 Chloroplasts

34 Cell Wall Functions Provides support and protection for the cell Properties Found in plants, algae, fungi, and nearly all prokaryotes, but not animal cells Made from fibers of carbohydrate and protein Plant cell walls are made of cellulose, a tough carbohydrate fiber cell wall

35 Cell Wall

36 Review Directions For each number select the correct corresponding structure of an animal cell. 1.A. Mitochondria B. Lysosomes C. Ribosomes 2.A. Golgi apparatus B. Mitochondria C. Endoplasmic reticulum 3.A. Nucleus B. Ribosomes C. Endoplasmic reticulum

37 Review Directions For each number select the correct corresponding structure of an animal cell. 4.A. Mitochondria B. Lysosomes C. Ribosomes 5.A. Cell wall B. Cell membrane C. Cytoplasm 6.A. Mitochondria B. Lysosomes C. Ribosomes

38 Review Directions For each number select the correct corresponding structure of an animal cell. 7.A. Cytoplasm B. Vacuole C. Mitochondria 8.A. Ribosomes B. Lysosomes C. Golgi apparatus 9.A. Nucleus B. Vacuole C. Mitochondria

39 Review Directions For each number select the correct corresponding structure of a plant cell. 1.A. Vacuole B. Nucleus C. Golgi apparatus 2.A. Ribosomes B. Mitochondria C. Chloroplasts 3.A. Ribosomes B. Vacuole C. Mitochondria

40 Review Directions For each number select the correct corresponding structure of a plant cell. 4.A. Vacuoles B. Chloroplasts C. Ribosomes 5. A. Cell membrane B. Cell wall C. Vacuole 6.A. Nucleus B. Golgi apparatus C. Cytoplasm

41 Review Directions For each number select the correct corresponding structure of a plant cell. 7.A. Cell membrane B. Cell wall C. Endoplasmic reticulum 8.A. Nucleus B. Golgi apparatus C. Vacuole 9.A. Golgi apparatus B. Mitochondria C. Nucleus 10.A. Chloroplasts B. Ribosomes C. Endoplasmic reticulum

42 Bibliography Arizona State University. “Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, & Viruses Tutorial.” [http://www.biology.arizona.ed u/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/page3.html]. November Beyond Books. “Life Science: Part 1.” [http://www.beyondbooks.com/lif71/index.asp]. November Cell Applications, Inc. “Cell Applications, Inc.” [http://cellapplications.com/index.htm]. November Center for Learning Technologies. “Eukaryotic Cell: Organelles – Membrane Bound.” [http://www.lions. odu.edu/~knesius/miniunits/beta/beta08.htm]. November Corbis. “Corbis®.” [http://www.corbis.com/]. November Florida State University. “Molecular Expressions: Exploring the World of Optics and Microscopy.” [http ://www.microscopy.fsu.edu/]. November Iowa State University. “Lab Topic 3: Cell Structure Reflects Function.” [http://www.biology.iastate.edu/ Courses/201L/CellTypes/Cell%20structure]. November Kimball, John W. “Kimball’s Biology Pages.” [http://biology-pages.info]. November Miller, Kenneth R. and Levine, Joseph. Prentice Hall Biology. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2. “Re-evaluating Centrosome Function.” [http://www.nature.co m/nrm/journal/v2/n9/slideshow/nrm0901_688a_F1.html]. November Pearson Education, Inc. “Prentice Hall School.” [http://www.phschool.com/]. November 2002.

43 Journal This slideshow was made by Adam Liu using Microsoft PowerPoint. This template was done in Adobe Photoshop 6.0 utilizing images from Corbis.com. Corbis.com


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