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Inside the World of Cells Unit 3: Cells Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Text: pages 174-181.

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Presentation on theme: "Inside the World of Cells Unit 3: Cells Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Text: pages 174-181."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inside the World of Cells Unit 3: Cells Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Text: pages

2 Vocabulary Organelle Organelle Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Nuclear envelope Nuclear envelope Chromosome Chromosome Nucleolus Nucleolus Endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus Lysosome Lysosome Vacuole Vacuole Mitochondria Mitochondria Chloroplast Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton Centriole Centriole

3 Introduction Organelles: structures found in eukaryotes that act as specialized organs. Organelles: structures found in eukaryotes that act as specialized organs. 2 major parts of the cell 2 major parts of the cell 1) Nucleus 2) Cytoplasm

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5 Nucleus Control center of the cell Control center of the cell Contains cells DNA Contains cells DNA Surrounded by nuclear envelope Surrounded by nuclear envelope Pores allow material to move in and out Pores allow material to move in and out Chromatin Chromatin Chromosomes Chromosomes Nucleolus: where ribosome assembly begins. Nucleolus: where ribosome assembly begins.

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7 Ribosomes Where proteins are made- proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Where proteins are made- proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes: small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm Ribosomes: small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm Instructions come from nucleus to produce the proteins. Instructions come from nucleus to produce the proteins.

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9 Endoplasmic Reticulum Internal membrane system Internal membrane system Assembly of lipids, proteins, and other materials which are exported. Assembly of lipids, proteins, and other materials which are exported. Rough ER: involved in protein synthesis; ribosomes on surface. Rough ER: involved in protein synthesis; ribosomes on surface. Smooth ER: specialized enzymes Smooth ER: specialized enzymes Synthesizing lipids for membranes Synthesizing lipids for membranes Detoxification of drugs Detoxification of drugs

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12 Golgi Apparatus Proteins move onto the golgi apparatus. Proteins move onto the golgi apparatus. Stack of membranes- look like flattened pancakes. Stack of membranes- look like flattened pancakes. Golgi apparatus: modifies and packages proteins for storage in or secretion outside of cell. Golgi apparatus: modifies and packages proteins for storage in or secretion outside of cell.

13 Lysosomes Small and filled with enzymes Small and filled with enzymes Lysosomes: digest and breakdown macromolecules into small units to be used by cell. Lysosomes: digest and breakdown macromolecules into small units to be used by cell. Breakdown organelles that have died Breakdown organelles that have died Remove junk from inside the cell Remove junk from inside the cell

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15 Vacuoles Sac like structures Sac like structures Store water, salts, proteins, and carbs. Store water, salts, proteins, and carbs. Turgor Pressure Turgor Pressure Plants and some single celled organisms. Plants and some single celled organisms. Paramecium- contractile vacuole- pumps water out.

16 Energy in Cells Cells acquire energy in one of two ways Cells acquire energy in one of two ways 1) From the food we eat- digestion 2) From the sun- photosynthesis

17 Mitochondria Take energy stored in food and make it more useful to the cell. Take energy stored in food and make it more useful to the cell. ATP ATP Outer and inner membrane Outer and inner membrane Inner is folded up inside. Inner is folded up inside. Mitochondria come from the egg cell- passed from out mothers. Mitochondria come from the egg cell- passed from out mothers.

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20 Chloroplasts Plants and blue-green algae Plants and blue-green algae Photosynthesis= Capturing suns energy & converting into chemical energy. Photosynthesis= Capturing suns energy & converting into chemical energy. 2 membranes 2 membranes Inside are chlorophyll containing membranes Inside are chlorophyll containing membranes

21 Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own genetic information in the form of small DNA molecules. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own genetic information in the form of small DNA molecules. Descendents of early prokaryotes????? Descendents of early prokaryotes?????

22 Cytoskeleton Provides cellular support Provides cellular support Protein filaments help maintain cells shape. Protein filaments help maintain cells shape. Also involved in movement Also involved in movement 2 types of protein filaments 2 types of protein filaments Microfilaments Microfilaments Microtubules Microtubules

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24 Microfilaments Threadlike Threadlike Protein = actin Protein = actin Create a tough but flexible framework Create a tough but flexible framework What allow amoebas to move or glide What allow amoebas to move or glide

25 Microtubules Hollow Hollow Protein = tubulin Protein = tubulin Maintains cell shape Maintains cell shape Important during cell division Important during cell division Cilia and flagella Cilia and flagella


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