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Inside the World of Cells

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Presentation on theme: "Inside the World of Cells"— Presentation transcript:

1 Inside the World of Cells
Unit 3: Cells Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function Section 7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure Text: pages

2 Endoplasmic reticulum
Vocabulary Organelle Cytoplasm Nuclear envelope Chromosome Nucleolus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosome Vacuole Mitochondria Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Centriole

3 Introduction Organelles: structures found in eukaryotes that act as specialized organs. 2 major parts of the cell Nucleus Cytoplasm


5 Nucleus Control center of the cell Contains cell’s DNA
Surrounded by nuclear envelope Pores allow material to move in and out Chromatin Chromosomes Nucleolus: where ribosome assembly begins.


7 Ribosomes Where proteins are made- proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes: small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm Instructions come from nucleus to produce the proteins.


9 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Internal membrane system Assembly of lipids, proteins, and other materials which are exported. Rough ER: involved in protein synthesis; ribosomes on surface. Smooth ER: specialized enzymes Synthesizing lipids for membranes Detoxification of drugs



12 Golgi Apparatus Proteins move onto the golgi apparatus.
Stack of membranes- look like flattened pancakes. Golgi apparatus: modifies and packages proteins for storage in or secretion outside of cell.

13 Lysosomes Small and filled with enzymes
Lysosomes: digest and breakdown macromolecules into small units to be used by cell. Breakdown organelles that have died Remove junk from inside the cell


15 Vacuoles Sac like structures Store water, salts, proteins, and carbs.
Turgor Pressure Plants and some single celled organisms. Paramecium- contractile vacuole-pumps water out.

16 Energy in Cells Cells acquire energy in one of two ways
From the food we eat- digestion From the sun- photosynthesis

17 Mitochondria Take energy stored in food and make it more useful to the cell. ATP Outer and inner membrane Inner is folded up inside. Mitochondria come from the egg cell- passed from out mothers.



20 Chloroplasts Plants and blue-green algae
Photosynthesis= Capturing sun’s energy & converting into chemical energy. 2 membranes Inside are chlorophyll containing membranes

21 Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own genetic information in the form of small DNA molecules. Descendents of early prokaryotes?????

22 Cytoskeleton Provides cellular support
Protein filaments help maintain cell’s shape. Also involved in movement 2 types of protein filaments Microfilaments Microtubules


24 Microfilaments Threadlike Protein = actin
Create a tough but flexible framework What allow amoebas to move or glide

25 Microtubules Hollow Protein = tubulin Maintains cell shape
Important during cell division Cilia and flagella

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