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Cells!. The Cell Theory All Living Things are composed of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells!. The Cell Theory All Living Things are composed of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells!

2 The Cell Theory All Living Things are composed of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced form existing cells

3 Basic Cell Structures All cells have: – Cell membrane Cytoplasm: within the cell membrane, but not in the nucleus Some cells have: – Cell wall – Nucleus

4 Biologists divide cells into two categories: Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

5 Prokaryotes Generally smaller and simpler Have cell membranes and cytoplasm DO NOT CONTAIN NUCLEI All bacteria are prokaryotes – Escherichia coli: lives in your intestines – Staphylococcus aureus: can cause skin infections

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8 prothro-update prothro-update

9 Eukaryotes “Eu” – true “karyon” – nucleus Also have – A cell membrane – Cytoplasm Organelles

10 Cell Walls Provides support and protection for the cell Lies outside of the cell membrane Found in – Plants – Algae – Fungi – Nearly all prokaryotes *ANIMALS CELL DO NOT HAVE CELL WALLS

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12 Nucleus THE NUCLEUS CONTROLS MOST CELL PROCESSES AND CONTAINS THE HEREDITARY INFORMATION OF DNA Robert Brown – botanist Chromatin Chromosomes

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16 na-packaging-nucleosomes-and-chromatin- 310# na-packaging-nucleosomes-and-chromatin- 310# Use this article to define – Nucleosome – Histone – Chromatin – Chromosomes – Chromatosomes

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18 Chromatin Granular material visible within the nucleus Consists of DNA bound to protein Spread throughout the nucleus

19 Chromosomes When a cell divides, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes Chromosomes: Distinct, threadlike structures containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

20 Nucleolus Most nuclei contain a small, dense region known as the nucleolus Assembly of ribosomes begins here

21 Nuclear Envelope Double membrane layer Contains nuclear pores – allow material to move into and out of the nucleus Nucleus sends a steady stream of RNA and other information-carrying molecules to the rest of the cell through the nuclear pores

22 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

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24 Cytoskeleton

25 The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape The cytoskeleton is also involved in many forms of cell movement The cytoskeleton is made up of a number of important structures: – Microtubules – Microfilaments – (p 176)

26 Microtubules Hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter Maintain cell shape and can serve as “tracks” along which organelles are moved Important in cell division – help separate chromosomes Form a pair of centrioles (animal cells) Can sometimes form cilia and flagella

27 Network of Microtubules connecting cellular organelles

28 Important in cell division – help separate chromosomes Form a pair of centrioles (animal cells)

29 Microtubules can sometimes form cilia and flagella to help the cell move through liquid

30 Microfilaments Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell 7 nm in diameter Tough flexible framework - support

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32 Organelles in the Cytoplasm Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Chloroplasts Mitochondria Organelles = “tiny organs”

33 Ribosomes Making proteins Proteins are assembled ON ribosomes – Where are ribosomes assembled? Ribosomes: small particles made of RNA and protein Produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from the nucleus – This coded instruction is called mRNA

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35 Endoplasmic Reticulum An internal system of membranes Only in eukaryotes The endoplasmic reticulum is the organelle in which components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified Rough ER Smooth ER

36 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Involved in the synthesis of proteins “Rough” due to the ribosomes on the surface Newly made proteins move directly from these ribosomes into the rough er, where they are chemically modified

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38 Smooth ER No ribosomes on surface It is an extension of the Rough ER Contains many enzymes that performed specialized tasks – Ex: Synthesis of lipids

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40 Rough & Smooth ER

41 Golgi Apparatus Proteins produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum move into a stack of membranes called the Golgi Apparatus Enzymes in the Golgi apparatus attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins From the Golgi apparatus, proteins are sent to their final destination

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43 Golgi Apparatus Cis face: receiving side Trans face: shipping side

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45 Lysosomes Small organelles filled with enzymes Breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles that can be used by the rest of the cell Also break down “old” organelles – Remove debris

46 1.Digestion 2.Organelle degradation

47 Vacuoles Store water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates Saclike structures Found in single-celled organisms and animals Vesicles: smaller vacuoles involved in transporting substances Useful in plants – Pressure in these central vacuoles makes it possible for plants to support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers

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49 Chloroplasts Found in plants and some other organisms – Not found in animal and fungal cells Chloroplasts use the energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules in a process known as photosynthesis Bound by two envelope membranes and contain large stacks of photosynthetic membranes Green pigment chlorophyll is located in the photosynthetic membranes - thylakoid

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51 Mitochondria Mitochondria use energy from food to make high-energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement Found in almost all eukaryotic cells – Including plant and algae cells Enclosed by an outer and an inner membrane – Inner membrane is folded

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53 Organelles that contain their own DNA Chloroplasts Mitochondria This DNA contains information that is essential for the normal function of these specific organelles

54 Mitochondrial DNA All of a mitochondria come from the cytoplasm of the ovum, or egg cell So, genes in the mitochondria are specifically genes from your mother dna/show/Genes dna/show/Genes

55 Endosymbiotic Theory


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