Expressing the Exact Relationship Lesson 13 Joseph C. Blumenthal.

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Expressing the Exact Relationship Lesson 13 Joseph C. Blumenthal

In this lesson you will study subordination as a way of building sentences. Subordinate means “of lower rank.” A clerk, for example, is subordinate to a manager. In the army, a sergeant is subordinate to a (private, general).

In this lesson you will study subordination as a way of building sentences. Subordinate means “of lower rank.” A clerk, for example, is subordinate to a manager. general In the army, a sergeant is subordinate to a (private, general).

In grammar, a subordinate word group is one that is less than a complete sentence—one that does not make sense by itself. Phrases and clauses are examples of _________ words groups.

In grammar, a subordinate word group is one that is less than a complete sentence—one that does not make sense by itself. Phrases and clauses are examples of subordinate words groups.

When we put an idea into a clause rather than into a sentence, we say that we subordinate it. When we subordinate an idea, we express it in a word group that is (more, less) than a sentence.

When we put an idea into a clause rather than into a sentence, we say that we subordinate it. less When we subordinate an idea, we express it in a word group that is (more, less) than a sentence.

a.The rain stopped. b.when the rain stopped Which is a subordinate word group because it is less than a sentence? (a,b)

a.The rain stopped. b.when the rain stopped Which is a subordinate word group because it is less than a sentence? (a,b)

a.The rain stopped. b.when the rain stopped We subordinated the idea in sentence a by adding the clause signal _______.

a.The rain stopped. b.when the rain stopped We subordinated the idea in sentence a by adding the clause signal _when__.

when the rain stopped Because this type of subordinate word group answers the question When?—like an ordinary adverb—it is classified as an _____ clause.

when the rain stopped Because this type of subordinate word group answers the question When?—like an ordinary adverb—it is classified as an adverb clause.

We continued our game when the rain stopped. The adverb clause when the rain stopped modifies the verb __________.

We continued our game when the rain stopped. continued The adverb clause when the rain stopped modifies the verb _continued_.

We continued our game when the rain stopped. Because the clause signal when starts a subordinate word group and also connects this word group with the sentence, we call it a subordinating conjunction. The subordinating conjunction in the above sentence is ______.

We continued our game when the rain stopped. Because the clause signal when starts a subordinate word group and also connects this word group with the sentence, we call it a subordinating conjunction. The subordinating conjunction in the above sentence is _when_.

We lost our way because we made a wrong turn. The subordinating conjunction in the above sentence is _______.

We lost our way because we made a wrong turn. because. The subordinating conjunction in the above sentence is because.

The grammar term for the clause signals that start adverb clauses is subordinating _________.

The grammar term for the clause signals that start adverb clauses is subordinating conjunctions.

You have had much practice in using the conjunctions and, but, and or to make compound sentences. These conjunctions, and, but, and, or are sometimes called coordinating (co- means equals) conjunctions because they connect words and word groups that are (unequal, equal) in rank.

You have had much practice in using the conjunctions and, but, and or to make compound sentences. equal These conjunctions, and, but, and, or are sometimes called coordinating (co- means equals) conjunctions because they connect words and word groups that are (unequal, equal) in rank.

Because the two parts of a compound sentence are equal in rank, they are connected by a (coordinating, subordinating) conjunction.

coordinating Because the two parts of a compound sentence are equal in rank, they are connected by a (coordinating, subordinating) conjunction.

Conjunctions such as because, when, if, and unless are called subordinating conjunctions because they connect a word group of (higher, lower) rank than a sentence.

lower Conjunctions such as because, when, if, and unless are called subordinating conjunctions because they connect a word group of (higher, lower) rank than a sentence.

Because adverb clauses are of lower rank than the sentence to which they are attached, they are connected by (coordinating, subordinating) conjunctions.

subordinating Because adverb clauses are of lower rank than the sentence to which they are attached, they are connected by (coordinating, subordinating) conjunctions.

A sentence that contains one or more subordinate clauses is called a complex sentence. Any sentence that contains an adverb clause is a (complex, compound) sentence.

A sentence that contains one or more subordinate clauses is called a complex sentence. complex Any sentence that contains an adverb clause is a (complex, compound) sentence.

In every complex sentence that contains an adverb clause, you can expect to find a (coordinating, subordinating) conjunction.

subordinating In every complex sentence that contains an adverb clause, you can expect to find a (coordinating, subordinating) conjunction.

a.when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, unless, so that, although, etc. b.and, but, or Which one of the above groups consists of subordinating conjunctions? (a, b)

a.when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, unless, so that, although, etc. b.and, but, or a Which one of the above groups consists of subordinating conjunctions? (a, b)

a.A serious fire broke out, and the building was empty. b.A serious fire broke out while the building was empty. One sentence merely adds one fact to another. The other sentence explains how the two facts are related. Which sentence brings out more clearly the relationship between the two ideas? (a,b)

a.A serious fire broke out, and the building was empty. b.A serious fire broke out while the building was empty. One sentence merely adds one fact to another. The other sentence explains how the two facts are related. Which sentence brings out more clearly the relationship between the two ideas? (a,b)

a.A serious fire broke out, and the building was empty. b.A serious fire broke out while the building was empty. Which is a complex sentence because it contains a subordinating conjunction? (a,b)

a.A serious fire broke out, and the building was empty. b.A serious fire broke out while the building was empty. Which is a complex sentence because it contains a subordinating conjunction? (a,b)

a.A serious fire broke out, and the building was empty. b.A serious fire broke out while the building was empty. The relationship between the two facts is brought out more clearly by the (complex, compound) sentence?

a.A serious fire broke out, and the building was empty. b.A serious fire broke out while the building was empty. complex The relationship between the two facts is brought out more clearly by the (complex, compound) sentence?

a.The dog won’t eat, and it seems to be hungry. b.The dog won’t eat although it seems to be hungry. The relationship between the two facts is brought out more clearly by the (complex, compound) sentence?

a.The dog won’t eat, and it seems to be hungry. b.The dog won’t eat although it seems to be hungry. complex The relationship between the two facts is brought out more clearly by the (complex, compound) sentence?

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so that, although, etc. The conjunctions that show more specifically the relationship between the two facts or ideas that they connect are the (subordinating, coordinating) conjunctions. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS and, but, or

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so that, although, etc. subordinating The conjunctions that show more specifically the relationship between the two facts or ideas that they connect are the (subordinating, coordinating) conjunctions. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS and, but, or

We can give a sentence many difference merely by changing the subordinating conjunction. I shall not tell Ruth…I see her. Which subordinating conjunction does NOT fit into the above sentence? when until so that if unless although

We can give a sentence many difference merely by changing the subordinating conjunction. I shall not tell Ruth…I see her. Which subordinating conjunction does NOT fit into the above sentence? so that when until so that if unless although

Think of the meaning of each sentence before you select the clause signal. The boys greeted each other…nothing had happened. Which clause signal would you use to explain how the boys greeted each other: unless as if although so that

Think of the meaning of each sentence before you select the clause signal. The boys greeted each other…nothing had happened. Which clause signal would you use to explain how the boys greeted each other: as if unless as if although so that

Bob studies at night…he completes his work in the afternoon. Which clause signal would you use to explain on what condition Bob studies as night: until although because unless

Bob studies at night…he completes his work in the afternoon. Which clause signal would you use to explain on what condition Bob studies as night: unless until although because unless

Maria applied for the job…she read the advertisement in the newspaper. Which clause signal would you use to explain when Maria applied for the job: if as soon as although where

Maria applied for the job…she read the advertisement in the newspaper. Which clause signal would you use to explain when Maria applied for the job: as soon as if as soon as although where

Our guide tied the canoe to a tree…it would not drift away. Which clause signal would you use to explain why the guide tied the canoe to a tree: as if where since so that

Our guide tied the canoe to a tree…it would not drift away. Which clause signal would you use to explain why the guide tied the canoe to a tree: so that as if where since so that

Mr. Hart put in a pinch of grass seed…he pulled out a weed. Which clause signal would you use to explain where Mr. Hart put in grass seed: after so that if wherever

Mr. Hart put in a pinch of grass seed…he pulled out a weed. Which clause signal would you use to explain where Mr. Hart put in grass seed: wherever after so that if wherever

Fear is good…it leads you to protect yourself. Which clause signal would you use to explain under what condition fear is good: though if although unless

Fear is good…it leads you to protect yourself. Which clause signal would you use to explain under what condition fear is good: if though if although unless

See how simple it is to combine two sentences by using an adverb clause. We change the first sentence to an adverb clause by adding the subordinating conjunction as. Then we change the period after the first sentence to a _____. As ^ The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his cheek.

See how simple it is to combine two sentences by using an adverb clause. comma We change the first sentence to an adverb clause by adding the subordinating conjunction as. Then we change the period after the first sentence to a comma. As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on his cheek.

The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his cheek. As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on his cheek. We have combined the two sentences by making a (compound, complex) sentence.

The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his cheek. As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on his cheek. complex We have combined the two sentences by making a (compound, complex) sentence.

The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his cheek. As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on his cheek. The relationship between the two facts is brought out more clearly by the (compound, complex) sentence.

The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his cheek. As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on his cheek. complex The relationship between the two facts is brought out more clearly by the (compound, complex) sentence.

Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. EXAMPLE: Veal is not my favorite meat. I sometimes eat it.

Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. EXAMPLE: Veal is not my favorite meat. I sometimes eat it. Although veal is not my favorite meat, I sometimes eat it.

Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor. 1.Skippy hid under the sofa. He was afraid of the storm.

2. You are the oldest. It was your responsibility. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

3. Mr. Doyle decided to buy our car. We had already sold it. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

4. Peaches are plentiful. They are very poor. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

5. I opened the cabinet, and a jar fell out. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

6. Jim insisted on changing the tire, and he had on his best suit. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

7. You wait long enough, and everything comes back into style again. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

8. I’ll set the alarm, and I’ll be sure to get up early. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

9. Sally smells roses, and she begins to sneeze. Combine each pair of sentences by changing the italicized sentence to an adverb clause. HAVE There could be variations, but they HAVE to have an adverb clause: when, as, since, where, after, as if, because, so, although, if, unless, until. MAY NOT You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.

You are done!!!

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