Presentation on theme: "A.P. U.S. HISTORY MR. KRUEGER RECONSTRUCTION. AFTER WAR The Reconstruction of the south was difficult Constitution provided no guidelines because founders."— Presentation transcript:
AFTER WAR The Reconstruction of the south was difficult Constitution provided no guidelines because founders didn’t anticipate a Civil War How far should the federal government go to secure freedom and civil rights for 4 million former slaves Advocates for minimal Reconstruction favored quick restoration with no protection for the freed slaves beyond prohibition of slavery Radicals wanted loyal men to replace Confederates in elite positions and blacks would receive basic rights of citizenships
WARTIME RECONSTRUCTION Major question – how do seceded states return to the Union 1863 – Lincoln issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Offers full pardon to southerners (not confederate leaders) who would take an oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledge emancipation (10% Plan) Congress did not support Lincoln’s 10% Plan Radicals were strongly anti-slave They felt Lincoln exceeded his authority Only Congress could determine readmittance Congress felt that by leaving the Union, the South forfeited their right to a republic. Congress passed the Wade – Davis Bill (50% plan) – but Lincoln used his pocket veto, and his relations with Congress reached an all time low.
ANDREW JOHNSON Attempts to put the Union back together with his own authority in 1865 – angers Congress and the Rep. Party – provokes problems between Executive and Legislative Branches Johnson as President was a strange accident that a southern democrat and white supremacist came to reside over the Republican Administration Former Jacksonian Democrat Hated the Southern Planter Class Endorsed Lincoln’s Emancipation Plan Some Radicals liked Johnson Strongly Loyal to the Union Wanted to punish confederates and southern traitors Johnson’s Reconstruction Policy changes this. He placed N. Carolina and other states under provisional governors They were chosen mostly from prominent southern politicians who opposed secession and did not serve the CSA.
JOHNSON’S PLAN Governor’s Responsibility Call for constitutional conventions Ensuring only legal whites would vote for delegates (must take an oath) To regain political and property rights, southern land owners loyal to the CSA must apply for a presidential pardon Wealthy planters were excluded if they possessed taxable property exceeding $20,000 Johnson Urged: Declare the ordinances of secession illegal Repudiate CSA debt Ratify the 13 th Amendment Once Reconstruction process was complete, the south could regain their rights Some states approved Johnson’s Plan, but with qualifications and all constitutions that limited suffrage to whites.
BLACK CODES Republicans were outraged when states passed the Black Codes, vagrancy laws, and apprentice laws Forced Blacks to work Denied free choice of employers Blacks in some states could not testify in court Blacks were subject to special codes and laws Radicals thought this was similar to slavery A number of ex-CSA leaders were elected to Congress Johnson was responsible He granted amnesty to CSA leaders Johnson and Congress drift apart Johnson wants to restore the federal system quickly without change Most Republicans did not want the return of the Southern ruling plantation class back in power
CONGRESSIONAL INITIATIVE Reconcile between Johnson and Congress inevitable because he vetoed two bills: Extended the Life of the Freedman’s Bureau – give black relief, education, land, legal aid Civil rights bill – nullify black codes and give blacks equal rights Congress overrode the veto to Civil Rights Bill (1 st time in history) Passed the 14 th Amendment Section 1 – equal rights to all Americans Section 2 – established a punishment to all states who denied suffrage to black males Section 3 – denied federal office to CSA supporters Section 4 – Repudiated CSA debt During the election of 1866 – Johnson opposed the Amendments because they violated states’ rights Bloody race riots in New Orleans and Memphis State governors were not protecting life and liberty for blacks Johnson had a very crude campaign This allowed radicals to gain 2/3 majority in Congress
RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION Radicals like Charles Sumner, Thadeus Stevens, George Julian – reshape southern society before readmitting ex- CSA to the Union Regeneration before Reconstruction – Military rule to confiscate and redistribute property of large landowners. Provide Federal Aid to Blacks March 1867 – 1 st Reconstruction Act passed (overrode presidential veto) South divided into 5 military districts Black suffrage was seen as a way for Northern Reps. to stay in power Reconstruction had a radical aspect. It allowed poor to have access to the ballot box, this was a bold application of principle of government by consent of the governed. The biggest problem was to enforce equal suffrage in the South.
IMPEACHMENT CRISIS Johnson opposed radical reconstruction Began to dismiss office holders – Congress responds with the Tenure of Office Act, limiting presidential power and requiring Senate approval for the removal of cabinet members Also limited Johnson’s ability to command the military Johnson objected – Congress spoke of impeachment 1869 – Johnson tries to dismiss the Secretary of War – the only radical in his cabinet The House viewed this as a violation of the Tenure Act Johnson went to trial in the Senate, but a Rep. Senator broke from party leadership and voted for acquittal Result – one vote short Arguments ensue President can only be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors Removal for political reasons places too much power in Legislative hands
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ADJUSTMENTS South was devastated by war Problem – Emancipation had taken away planters most productive asset Southern prosperity would still rely on cotton Sherman was hampered by a huge number of black fugitives – set aside 40 acre plots for them along the coasts Freedman Bureau gave 40 acre plots and an option to buy after 3 years Most blacks on small farms failed to acquire title, problems committing to wage labor Sharecropping was common Work a piece of land for a % of the crop Tenet shared the risk of crop failure, and low cotton prices Credit problems Blacks in cities found themselves living in segregation because of Black Codes and Separate but Equal institutions
POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION State governments had little respect for freed slaves Black codes made unemployment a crime Denied the right to own property Extreme violence – 1000’s were murdered – terrorism and violence were used to keep blacks from voting Southern Republican Party was made up of 3 groups North Republican businessmen – carpetbaggers and scalawags – given opportunity for commercial development Poor white farmers Nearly enfranchised blacks – formed a majority in some states and were concerned with education, civil rights, land ownership Problem – each groups stood alone and Southern Democrats exploited this Corruption due to Radical Reconstruction affects economy
AGE OF GRANT Grant was the only President to serve 2 consecutive terms between AJ and W. Wilson Grant is regarded as a failure Corruption Inconsistency Ultimate failure of southern policy Top priority was to old friends and politicians Money was an issue in the election Many wanted to return to greenbacks Others wanted to stay with the gold standard 1869-1870 – Congress passed a law that assured payment in gold, but eased the burden of the huge Civil War debt for bond holders not due for the next 10-30 years What should be done with 356 million in greenbacks in circulation? Grant administration wanted them to float until economic expansion would bring them to par with gold Panic of 1873 brought economy to its knees – debt at an all time high Grant vetoed a Congressional greenback bill Deflation continued – workers and farmers upset creates the Greenback Party
RETREAT FROM RECONSTRUCTION 15 th Amendment – States are prohibited from denying a citizen the right to vote based on race, color, or previous servitude Limited by: Literacy Tests, Property qualifications, Poll taxes The amendment makers did not see that the amendment would be used to strip blacks of the right to vote Feminists were upset the amendment did not extend the right to vote to women – campaigned against it Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony The Grant Administration was charged with enforcing the Amendment. The Republican Party depended on it: African American Support Political Partnership Dictated federal action A big threat to the Republicans were white supremacists like the KKK
KLU KLUX KLAN OR KNIGHTS OF THE CAMELLIA Organized in Tennessee – grass roots movement with support from all classes Klan caused Grant to lose Louisiana and Georgia during the election of 1868 Insurrections broke out in many states as militias were called out against the KKK In Tennessee, N. Carolina, and Georgia, Klan activities brought the Democrats to power in the 1880’s Grant faced overthrow in the South – passed laws to enforce the 15 th amendment Federal protection for black suffrage Use of the army against the KKK KKK or Force Act Made interference with voting a federal crime Gave the president the right to call federal troops Gave the president the right to suspend habeas corpus Result – Election of 1872 was peaceful Democrats change tactics – promote the idea of white supremacy and agrarian hostility to the government Republicans start to lose the South
SCANDAL Grant’s power was failing Reformers charged that a corrupt national administration was protecting poor southern governments for personal advantage Example: Grant’s administration intervened in Louisiana to protect a poor Rep. faction headed by his wife’s brother – in – law. Credit – Mobilier Scandal – Grant’s 1 st term VP (Schuyler Colfax) took profits that should have gone to the Union Pacific Railroad U.P. benefited from federal land grants To stop a government inquiry the Credit Mobilier stock was distributed to influential Congressmen and Colfax Republicans split – Liberal Republicans try to create an honest government and reconcile North and South Grant still wins because southern democrats do not support Liberal Republicans Whiskey Ring 1875 – Federal revenue collectors conspired with distillers to steal millions of dollars in liquor taxes Grant’s private secretary indicted Grant’s secretary of war impeached because he took bribes
COMPROMISE Compromise of 1877 – End of Reconstruction Election of 1876 – Rep. Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Sam Tilden promised honest government Tilden won the popular vote and seemed to win the electoral vote – S. Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana were contested Congress appointed an electoral commission of 15 members to determine the outcome Democrats filibuster Compromise is reached – Hayes would be president, southern home rule would be restored, and blacks left to fate Hayes ordered the army to not to resist Democratic takeover Radical governments were ended
THE NEW SOUTH Committed to economic development, commercial and industrial interests – led by the “redeemers” Wealthy planters supported a return to plantations Professional Politicians Interest groups dominate policy Laissez Faire, White Supremacy Government remained corrupt and dishonest Embezzlement of funds, bribery and corruption of state lotterys Cut back on money for schools and public service Crop Loan and credit affected black and white farmers Said they would not impede black suffrage (as long as they voted for the Democratic Party) Democrats also: stuffed ballot boxes, discarded votes, reported false totals African Americans were defenseless to the Jim Crow Era