Presentation on theme: "Contraceptive Methods. No Contraception ► Withdrawal This involves withdrawing the penis before ejaculation. It is not a reliable method and cannot."— Presentation transcript:
No Contraception ► Withdrawal This involves withdrawing the penis before ejaculation. It is not a reliable method and cannot be considered as contraception because some sperm can leak out of the penis before ejaculation.
Spermicidal Foam ► These are creams, gels or pessaries (dissolvable tablets, inserted into the vagina) that contain a chemical that kills sperm. They can increase the effectiveness of barrier methods of contraception, but they do not provide reliable contraception when used alone. Spermicides can be bought without prescription at pharmacies. Some condoms have a coating of spermicidal lubricant.
Sponge ► This is a small sponge impregnated with a spermicidal gel or cream. It is moistened with water before use, and then inserted high into the vagina to cover the cervix. It needs to be left in place for at least six hours after sex, and can be left for up to 30 hours, although there is a risk of infection if left for longer than that.
Rhythm (Calendar) ► This involves reducing the chance of becoming pregnant by planning sex around the most fertile and infertile times during the woman’s monthly cycle. ► The key is for the woman to keep a diary to work out when she ovulates – the point of the cycle where sex is most likely to result in pregnancy. It involves recording the dates of her periods for three to six months. Ovulation occurs around 12 to 16 days before the start of the next period. The fertile period lasts for around eight or nine days around ovulation because, although an egg only lives for 24 hours, sperm can survive in the woman’s body for up to seven days.
Male Condom ► A condom is a thin sheath, usually made out of latex, which is rolled onto an erect penis before sexual contact. They should not be used with an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline, because this can cause the latex to break down. Water-based lubricants, such as K-Y Jelly, and spermicidal creams or pessaries are safe. ► After sex, the condom should be checked for leaks and tears before being discarded (don’t flush condoms down the toilet).
Female Condom ► A female condom (Femidom) is a thin, soft polyurethane pouch, which is fitted inside the vagina before sex. It has an inner ring that goes into the upper part of the vagina, and an outer one, which should be visible. The female condom is less likely to tear than the male condom.
Diaphragm ► The diaphragm and cap are devices made of thin, soft rubber that are inserted into the upper part of the vagina to cover the cervix (neck of the womb). They act as a barrier to sperm. ► Caps are smaller than diaphragms, but both are available in several types and sizes. In the first instance the cap or diaphragm needs to be fitted by a doctor or family planning nurse, to make sure it’s the right size and is positioned correctly. After the initial fitting, they are put in place up to a few hours before sex. They need to be used with a spermicidal cream or pessary, and should be left in place for at least six hours after sex.
Oral – The Pill ► Hormones are a type of natural messenger in the body which instruct organs and other tissues to change the way they behave. The female hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, relay messages that control body functions such as ovulation, bleeding during a period, and pregnancy. ► The pill contain a synthetic oestrogen and progesterone (called progestogen) that prevent pregnancy by copying some of the effects of the natural female hormones. The oestrogen component of the pill switches off the signals that tell the ovaries to release an egg, thereby stopping ovulation. The progestogen works by causing the mucus at the neck of the womb (the cervix) to thicken. This makes it difficult for sperm to enter the womb and fertilize an egg. It also changes the womb lining, making it harder for a fertilized egg to attach to it and start growing.
Patch ► The patch contains two hormones: estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are synthetic versions of naturally occurring female hormones. They work primarily by preventing ovulation. Each month's supply contains 3 weekly hormonal birth control patches. The patch is worn for 1 week and replaced on the same day of the week for 3 consecutive weeks, with the 4th week "patch-free." Your period should begin during the "patch-free" week.
Depo-Provera ► a hormone injection that protects you against pregnancy for about three months. ► Depo-Provera is a long-acting progestin (hormone) form of birth control. It is injected into the muscle every 11 weeks. It is effective 24 hours after your first injection if given in the first 5 days of a normal menstrual period. You will need to receive your injection promptly every 11 weeks in order to continue your contraceptive protection.
IUD ► The intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD) – or coil – is a small plastic and copper device, which is fitted into the womb (uterus) by a doctor or nurse. It is designed to prevent the sperm meeting the egg, and may also make the egg move down the Fallopian tube more slowly and stop an egg settling in the womb. ► The main advantage of a coil is that, once fitted, there is no need to worry about contraception. As long as the coil remains in place, it can be left for three to ten years. They are up to 98% effective. ► There are, however, some disadvantages. Coils can make a woman’s periods heavier, longer or more painful. This may improve after a few months.
Nuva Ring ► NuvaRing (“the ring”) is a flexible contraceptive ring about two inches in diameter used to prevent pregnancy. The ring is inserted into the vagina for three weeks. During that time, it will slowly release a low dose of hormones that are needed to prevent pregnancy. When 21 days are completed, remove the ring to allow your body to menstruate. After a seven-day break, you will insert a new ring to continue to be protected against pregnancy.
Sterilization ► This is an operation to permanently prevent fertilization. It is therefore only recommended for people who are sure they do not want to have any more children. The failure rate of sterilization is around one in 2,000 for men and about one in 200 for women. These operations are not easily reversible. Men ► Men are sterilized in a procedure called a vasectomy. This is a minor operation usually performed under local anesthetic. It involves cutting or tying the tubes (vas deferens) which carry sperm from the testicles to the penis. Women ► This is an operation performed under general anesthetic, usually as day case surgery. The Fallopian tubes are cut, tied or blocked, often through keyhole surgery. The alternative is a hysterectomy, removal of the womb, after which pregnancy is impossible.
Abstinence ► No Pregnancies ► No STD’s ► No Guilt ► No Loss of Self Respect ► No Depression ► No Cervical Cancer ► No Loss of Reputation And you are