Presentation on theme: "Typical Interior Partitions Be clear: 'typical' and 'possible' are not the same. What is 'typically' built may or may not not be ideal, beautiful, or even."— Presentation transcript:
Typical Interior Partitions Be clear: 'typical' and 'possible' are not the same. What is 'typically' built may or may not not be ideal, beautiful, or even functional. 'Typical' means just that, it is what is done most of the time. 'Possible' is where designers live; designers explore the question "What if..."
Even so, it is useful to understand what is 'typically' built. 'GWB', 'Sheetrock', 'drywall', 'gyp board', are all different ways of referring to gypsum board, a flat panel product that is used to make the surfaces of partitions and ceilings.
Read pages 52 – 89, & 182 – 194 & in “Sustainable Building Systems and Construction for Designers"
gypsum board gypsum boards are manufactured by many different companies. USGypsum is one such company. USG makes a product that is called 'Sheetrock'. This is their version of gypsum board.
The term 'Sheetrock' is a proprietary term; that is, it is a proper name; the name of USG's gypsum board. Nevertheless, you may hear people refer to 'sheetrock' as if this is the generic way of referring to gypsum board; it is not. The generic term is 'gypsum board.'
gypsum boards are produced in many sizes and thicknesses: 4'x8', 4'x10', 4'x16' thicknesses of: 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 3/4",5/8", a special product called 'shaftwall' is 1" thick, and designed to be used to line elevator shafts.
Gypsum Board Gypsum board is the generic name for the group of products comprised mainly of a noncombustible gypsum core and paper facings. Gypsum board is commonly referred to as drywall, wallboard, plasterboard and sheetrock. Gypsum is a mineral found in sedimentary rock formations. This product is perfectly highly fire resistant. Gypsum contains chemically combined water that is driven off as steam when subjected to high heat, effectively fighting fire. Gypsum board is the most common interior finish used today in Canada and the United States
Types of Gypsum Board Regular - is used as a surface layer for walls and ceilings, available in tapered and square edges. Type X - is available in ½-inch or 5/8-inch thickness and has improved fire- resistance through the use of fibers mixed within the gypsum core.
Type C or Improved X - Additional additives give this product improved fire-resistance. Required in some fire-tested assemblies. Water Resistant Board - made with a water- resistant core and water-resistant face paper. Also known as "green" board. Designed as a ceramic tile backer board..
Gypsum Liner board - available in ¾- or 1-inch thickness and used primarily in area separation wall systems. Soffit board - designed for exterior use under protected overhangs and walkways.
Gypsum sheathing - used as an underlayment in exterior walls for structural stability and fire-protection. Available in treated and non-treated core for water-resistance.
Joint Treatment Gypsum wallboard produces a monolithic surface by taping the depression formed along the edges of gypsum board. The procedure is to embed a tape with a taping or joint compound over the tapered joint. The depression is then filled with successive layers of compound and sanded to produce a monolithic surface. The square edge of the gypsum panels that meet are often referred to as "butt" joints and should be feathered out further than tapered joints.
an exterior wall may also be the 'interior' wall. here triangles are used to build a 'geodesic' dome
plywood is used as 'sheathing' to begin the weather enclosure
insulation can be sprayed on. this is useful when the surfaces involved are of uneven, or irregular form.
wood stud framing. individual pieces of wood, combined in a system that includes surface finish materials, and construction technologies.
there are two wood framing systems: platform framing & balloon framing platform framing: vertical studs are only one story tall. each separate story is framed individually, one vertical level at a time. most wood frame buildings today are built this way. balloon framing: vertical studs run the full vertical height of the building. floor joists are 'let in' to notches in the vertical studs. used mostly prior to 1940.
platform framing: one story of wall construction is made, and then placed on the floor.
balloon framing: shows floor joists set into continuous vertical studs
wood rafters in place
typical wood stud wall in platform framing
heavy timber frame: large timber pieces make whole frame sections
heavy timber framing
assembling heavy timber trusses
A good website for heavy timber framing information and images
there are many different types of wood joints used in heavy timber framing such as the mortise & tenon, and dovetail
this is a student project, from the university of oregon. each is a 'kit of parts'; one of heavy timber, the other of lightweight metal components.
bricks There are two basic brick types - face and paver. paver bricks are used for patios, driveways, et cetera. paver bricks are usually 4" x 8" x 2" face bricks are typically used to build walls. face bricks are made in a range of sizes, but the most common construction brick size is 3 5/8" x 2 1/4" x 7 5/8"
The most common brick wall used in building houses is a "veneered wall". Facing brick is placed outside the frame of the house and the brick veneer is attached to the frame by metal ties or by grouting it to mesh attached to studs.
The other common type of wall used in houses is a solid masonry "bearing wall", which means that the wall carries the weight of the house. With this type of wall, there is no frame behind the brick. Instead, the brick, and usually a "back up" of hollow masonry units or brick, provide both enclosure and structural system.
In some cases, a house may have a brick "cavity wall" (which is frequently a bearing wall as well). This is a wall in which a space is left between an outer and an inner width of brick. The space is usually filled with insulation. Most often, this type of wall is used when it is desirable to have an exposed brick interior wall. However, exposed brick interiors can be constructed using inside veneered or bearing walls.
glass blocks in a stack bond pattern
a brick arch, a stone lintel: both the arch, and the lintel are structural elements for allowing an opening beneath
a piece of steel is being used in this old brick wall as a lintel, to support the weight of the wall above, in order to install a new, large, window.
There are three categories of stone : 1) Igneous: solidified directly from the molten state, this is the hardest and least porous stone. 2) Sedimentary: sand and decomposed material carried by water, and settled, this is the softest and most porous stone. 3) Metamorphic: sedimentary materials which are further hardened by a combination of pressure, heat, and moisture, close in hardness compared with igneous stone.
stone used in construction (of a building, or a garden wall) may be divided into three classes: rubble ashlar trimmings
rubble Rubblework: consists of stones in which the adjoining sides are not required to be at right angles. It is used for rough masonry, as in foundations, backing, etc., and frequently consists of common field stone, roughly dressed
rubble Field-Stone Walls. Walls of this kind are built of small, uncut stones, and are frequently employed for fences and rustic- house work. Such walls should be made quite thick on account of the round and unstable shape of the stones used in their construction.
ashlar Ashlar: Stonework that is cut on four sides so that the adjoining sides will be at right angles to each other, is known as ashlar, no matter whether the face is dressed or not.
an excellent website: this is: The Astoft Collection of Buildings of England
stone used to make facing, or panels, is cut using a saw
stone blocks are carefully blasted apart, and dug out of the earth. the place where this is done is called a quarry.
white Italian marble from the region around Carerra is world famous
A massive Corinthian capital in the stone fabrication shop in Indiana. This capital was carved from a twenty ton block of Indiana buff limestone.
1) Granite: Igneous, extremely hard (and non-porous), used commonly as veneer. 2) Limestone, Sandstone: sedimentary stones that differ based on their composition, they are soft, fairly porous, easily worked, and are used both as a veneer and as structural material. 3) Marble: metamorphic, harder than limestone or sandstone, and more durable, still fairly easily worked. Mostly a decorative material 4) Slate: metamorphic, a smooth, dark, waterproof material used frequently in floors, and as shingles. 5) Travertine: sedimentary, a soft porous stone used decoratively in interior uses only. 6) Soapstone: sedimentary, used for counters. Stone used in building
Dry stone walls are called dry because no mortar or other bonding material such as clay is used to keep the stones together. A typical wall consists of a foundation course, generally of larger stones or boulders known as footings, with two wall faces of large stones. The cavity in between the faces is filled with smaller stones or hearting.
stone veneer Stone Veneer · Although stone is too expensive in general for structural purposes, because of its durability it can be effectively used for surface applications. · Choice of stone is determined by color, texture, desired hardness, and weight, with a multitude of options available.
Applications of stone veneers: 1) Interior: as a wall or floor covering, generally for public area like lobbies, corridors. 2) Exterior: as a cladding, for the base, for spandrel panels, or for the entire building
stone being used as a veneer, on top of steel studs with a mesh lath.
stone with a concrete or concrete block backup.
Finish of stone masonry 1) Roughed: the outer surface of the stone may be cut in such a way that it looks uncut. This treatment is commonly found at the base of a building (such as this one). 2) Rustication: grooves are left at the edges of the stones to provide extra definition of the joints. Traditionally this is used as a transition between the roughed stone and the smooth stone. 3) Smooth: there are a number of finished that can be applied to relatively smooth stones, depending on the device used.
a free standing garden wall: can be built using a concrete sub-structure, or just stacked and mortared stones