Published byRudolf Pearson Modified over 7 years ago
CLADDING / VENERING OF INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR WALL SURFACES WITH MASONRY
STONE CLADDING BRICK CLADDING
I- STONE APPLICATIONS Many surface finishes are possible with stone. The figure below show the graphic symbols for typical stone finishes.
Stone Wall Patterns Stone wall bond patterns can be roughly divide into two main groups.
We can use two types stone:
NATURAL STONES Marble, Granite, Travertine, Limestone, Sandstone... MANUFACTURED STONES Concrete bkocks, terrazo...
Manufactured Stone: Manufactured stone is a simulated stone veneer made from lightweight concrete. It is colourfast, weather proof and has the look and feel of natural stone. Produced in a variety of colours and textures, it simulates various types of natural stone.
Manufactured stone maybe applied directly to a base coat of stucco, concrete block, brick, concrete or any masonry surface that has not been treated or sealed and which is rough enough to provide a good mechanical bond. Manufactured stones are produced in different shapes and sizes to suit natural stone wall patterns of rubble, and ashlar. The stones designed for ashlar bond pattern are available as either square or rectangular slabs, which maybe fixed to the wall either: a) in a simple square or rectangular grid pattern; b) in a bond pattern
Typical thickness of marble and slate slabs might be 18 mm, while limestones and sandstones tend to be thicker. Stone slabs are fixed back to the wall surface by many of non-ferrous metal cramps (such as phosphor, bronze, brass or copper) as illustrated in the following figures.
One end of the cramp is built into the wall, while the other end hooks into a recess in the slab. The cramps may be built into the wall by such means as either: setting the cramps into mortar joints as a brick wall, cutting a “pocket” (or mortise) in a concrete wall, and bedding the cramp into the pocket with mortar. The manufactured stone can be cut with a brick trowel, hatchet or similar tool to achieve sizes and shapes required for fitting stones and keeping mortar joints to a minimum.
Mortar: Mortar used for manufactured stone should be a mixture of one part cement to three parts clean sand. To this is added from ¼ to ½ part lime, mortar cream or fire clay. Packaged dry mix mortar that requires the addition of water also works well with manufactured stone.
Application: In any case mortar should be mix to a consistency similar to that of brick mortar. While the mortar is still soft and pliable the stone should be pressed into place with enough pressure so that the mortar is squeezed out around the edges of the stone. This will insure a good bond between the stone and wall surface.
When the mortar joints become firm (from one to three hours depending on suction of the base and climate) they should be pointed up with a wood and metal shrinking tool. Excess mortar should be raked out and in the stone sealed around the edges to give the finished job the appearance of a natural stone wall. At the end, the finished wall should be broomed or wire brushed to remove loose mortar and to clean the face of the stone.
II- BRICK APPLICATIONS
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