2Interior finishing Definition: Prerequisites to Construction: The installation of cover materials to walls and ceilingsPrerequisites to Construction:Utilities, heating, and insulation are installedExterior doors and windows must be hung and installed.
3Interior walls can be covered with any one of a number of materials: Gypsum wallboard(drywall)Plywood and particleboardPlasterGypsum wallboard for plaster veneeringHardboard and fiberboardCement boardPredecorate gypsum panelingSolid wood panelingSpecial finishes
4Gypsum wallboard (drywall) Def:A laminated material with a gypsum core and paper covering on either side.Has fireproof coreVariety of thickness, shown on right, and lengths (4’ x 8’, 7’, 9’, 10’, 12’, and 14’Also requires special tools (next slide):
6Gypsum wallboard for plaster veneering This is a base of gypsum boardUsually ½” thickIt’s applied as a backing for a thin coat of plaster
7Predecorated gypsum paneling This is the same as gypsum wallboard.The difference:Decorative vinyl finishes have been applied and edges have received special treatment so no other finish work is needed.
8Plywood and particleboard Picture to the right is fabricated in 4’ widths.Lengths: 7, 8, 9, and 10’Prefinished in a variety of colors and patterns
9Hardboard and fiberboard These are produced from wood fibers in sizes and thicknesses similar to plywood.The face finish is simulated to look like wood.Variations of fiber board are used as ceiling coverings.
10Solid wood paneling These are boards or pieces of solid wood. Widths: Vary from 2 to 12”Thicknesses: Either 1” or 2”Lengths: Vary from 4 to 10’Faces may be rough-sawed, plain, or molded in a variety of patterns.
11Plaster The most popular wall covering. It is made of powdered gypsum to which other materials are added to improve drying time.A plastered wall system includes:A base support, such as metal or gypsum lathCoats of wet plater
12Cement board Definition: A versatile fiber-reinforced cement panel material that is used as a base (underlayment) for finishing materials used on walls, floors, and countertops.Fireproof, & water and impact resistant
13Special Finishes These include a variety of products and materials: BrickStoneGlazed TilePlastic TilePlastic LaminatesOften found in kitchens and bathrooms
14Ceilings can be covered with many of the same materials used for walls. Composition tiles are especially suitable because they are easy to install.
15Drywall ConstructionDrywall materials, such as gypsum wallboard, (shown on left) are the most common coverings used in modern construction b/c:It saves timeDries faster than regular plaster
16Single Layer Construction * Cover ceiling first, then walls. Method One:ParallelLong edges of panels run in the same direction as studs and joists.Method Two:PerpendicularLong edges of panels are at right angles to studs and joists.Generally more prefered method.
17Carpenter will use whichever method has fewer joints. In either method, vertical wall joints must fall over and center on studs.Both parallel and perpendicular are shown to the rightCarpenter will use whichever method has fewer joints.
18Measuring and CuttingScore face with sharp knife pulled along straight edge, cut should penetrate the paper and enter the gypsum coreSupport main section of sheet close to scored lineSnap the core by pressing downward sharply on overhang.
194. Support the cutoff with other hand 5. Score the backing paper, as shown on right, and snap the cutoff upward6. The cut can be smoothed with file or sandpaper
20Nails and ScrewsFor single layer const., nails are spaced no further than 7” (ceiling) and 8” (wall).Keep 3/8” from ends and edges(On right) drywall fasteners
21Walls Ceilings Wallboard must be drawn tightly Start nailing at abutting edgeNail the field (area between edges) firstDrive nails straightCeilingsDouble nailing method of attachment ensures firm contact with framingNails in field of board should be spaced 12” on centerAfter panel is secured, another nail is driven approx. 2” from first
22Adhesive FasteningProduce a sturdier wall that is more resistant to impact soundsSome have flammable solventsApplication:Apply continuous bead to the center of all studs, joists, or furring.Should be ¼ to 3/8” wideUse temporary nailing or bracing to ensure full contact of the wallboard.
23Joint & Fastener Concealment Apply a bedding coat of compound into the depression formed by the tapered edges of board over all butt jointsCenter reinforcing tape over joint and smooth out.Press tape by drawing 5-6” knife along joint with pressureApply skim coat over tape.Apply second coat over tape.Feather edges and apply third coat.Sand if necessary.
24Corners Outside corners are reinforced with a metal corner bead. Fasten by nailing into wallboard and frameConceal with joint compoundInternal cornersCoat joint compound to both sidesFold tape along center and smooth
25Double Layer Construction Also called two-plyDouble layer wallboard apps. over wood framingBase can be drywall or backing boardA gyp. board with a gray liner paper on both sides
26Attaching the LayersBase layers are applied to framing with staples, nails, or screwsThe finish layer is laminated to base layer with an adhesive or compoundJoints should be offset at least 10” from the joints of base layerAdhesive is usually applied to entire surface
27Boards Cement board Moisture Resistant (MR) Wallboard Manufactured from a slurry of portland cement reinforced with polymer-coated fiberglass mesh embedde3d in both sides.Rigid or flexibleMoisture Resistant (MR) WallboardPlywood processed to withstand the effects of moisture and high humiditylight green facingcan be used as base under ceramic tile and other nonabsorbent finishing materials
28Predecorated Wallboard Veneer PlasterA high-strength material applied as a coat less than 1/8” thickDries rapidlyone- or two- coat applicationPredecorated WallboardUsually applied verticallyWalls must be dry before installationUse of adhesive to bond panels is common
29Wallboard on Masonry Walls Two methods of preparing masonry walls for interior finish:(top) Wallboard can be attached to metal furring channels. Rigid insulation is used(bottom) Wood furring strips and blanket insulation
30Installing PlywoodBefore, panels should be adjusted to room temp. and humidityPlan layout, begin at cornerCut upward against the panel faceAttach directly to wall studs with nails or adhesivesRecommended use: ¼” plywood over ½” gypsum wallboard base
31PlasterQualities:Beauty, durability, economy, fire protection, structural rigidity, highly adaptive to shapes, and sound resistancemade from gypsum
32Plaster Base Sheet materials and metal lath Plaster base materials: A. Gypsum lathB. Insulating fiberboard lathC. Perforated gyp. LathD. Expanded metal lath
33Plaster Materials & Methods Three-coat workScratch coatApplied directly to plaster baseIt is cross-raked after having stiffenedBrown coatApplied and leveled with the grounds and screeds. A long flat tool called and darby and rod are usedFinish coatApplied when third coat is somewhat dryTwo-coat workScratch coat and brown coat are applied almost at the same time
34Ceiling TileCan be installed over engineered metal strips, wood furring strips, solid plaster, drywall, or smooth continuous surfacesMany materials can be usedStandard size is 12”X12”
35Estimating Materials Determining Area of Rooms Sheet Materials Ceiling area is usually the same as floor areaMultiply length times widthWall areaadd all the wall lengths together and multiply by the wall heightSheet MaterialsAlways plan to use the longest practical sheet.Divide total length of walls by the width of sheets to find the number of sheets neededEstimate each room separately
36Estimated Solid Paneling Based on nominal and unfinished sizeCalculate the square footage of the wall to be covered then multiply by the various factors taken from lumber tables:For 1x6 tongue and groove boards, use 1.17For 1x8 tongue and groove boards, use 1.16On standard vertical applications, add 5% for waste
37Gypsum Lath Produced in smaller sections than full sheets Figure the area of the ceiling and add to this the area of the walls (length of walls x height)Prices are normally based on square yardsCeiling tile are estimated by figuring the area to be covered (square footage)Round up