2 1) State a problem like asking a question “Which fertilizer works best to grow beans?”
3 2) ResearchUse sources such as books, magazines, news papers, journals, and experts to discover background information about your problem.
4 3) Form a hypothesisa) Use your research and observations to predict an answer to the problemb) Is the purpose for the experiment, let’s other know what you are testingc) should be very specific and based on research
5 4) Conduct an experiment Procedure – Describes how an experiment will be carried out – step by stepThis should test only one hypothesisShould only change one variableDecide what equipment and materials are neededTake safety precautions
6 5) Analyze DataData – Recorded facts or measurements from an experimentDescribe the results in wordsList the information in a table or graph
8 6) Draw a conclusionConclusion – Logical answer to a problem question based on dataThink about what the data mean- Are there patterns?Did the experiment test the hypothesis correctly?- Do you need a new experiment?Do the data support the hypothesis?-Was the prediction right or wrong?- Do you need a new hypothesis?
9 Control – A standard for comparison A specimen or subject kept “normal” while the hypothesis is tested on othersa control group has onlywater – no fertilizerif all groups end up thesame, does thefertilizer really doanything?Probably not!
10 Controlled Variable – Any factor that does not change during an experiment Same for all specimenswhere the plants are grown, soil, amount of water, etc.Independent – Changed by the experimenterwhich plants get which fertilizer, X axisthe tested variableDependent – Changes as a result of the independent variable, Y axisbean production for each plantthe outcome variable
11 Importance of Models Benefits and limitations of models Benefits- they can how us things that are too small or too big to be easily seenThey show us complex processesThey are safer/more stable to use than the real thingLimitations-Not always to scaleNot the real thing so there are some factors not considered in models.
12 Volume – Amount of space occupied by an object Length x Width x HeightCubic meter – SI unit for volume (m3)Measure water displacement in a graduated cylinder
13 Mass – Amount of matter in an object Kilogram – SI unit for massGram, milligramOne liter (L) of pure water has mass of 1 kg
14 Weight – The measure of the force of gravity acting on an object Newton (N) – SI unit for force and weightWeight changes as gravity changes
15 Density – Amount of mass an object has for its volume Mass/VolumeDensity =Mass= Density x VolumeVolume= Mass/ DensityYou need to know how tochange around the standardequation!!!!ObjectMassVolumeDensityA153?B4C20D5E21F18
16 Checking ValidityWHY IS IT IMPORTANT THAT SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS ARE REPLICABLE?- So that they other scientists can repeat the experiment to verify the results.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REPLICATION AND REPETITION(Repeated trial)?- Replication is when the whole experiment is repeated by someone else. Repetition(repeated trial) is when you repeat one part or a couple parts to get more accurate results.
17 Scientific theory vs. Scientific law WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?SCIENTIFIC THEORY: A WELL-TESTED EXPLANATION FOR A WIDE RANGE OF EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS.(plate tectonics, evolution, cell theory, atom theory)SCIENTIFIC LAW: A STATEMENT THAT DESCRIBES WHAT SCIENTISTS EXPECT TO HAPPEN EVERY TIME UNDER A PARTICULAR SET OF CONDITIONS(gravity, superposition, conservation of mass, conservation of energy)
18 Science is always changing Science is always changing! New evidence can be discovered to contradict previous theories and ideas*EVIDENCE IS DATA AND OBSERVATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN COLLECTED THROUGH SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES AND THAT ALSO EXPLAIN A PARTICULAR OBSERVATION.*ALL SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION INVOLVE THE COLLECTION OF RELEVANT EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT RESEARCHER’S CONCLUSIONS.*SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS ARE BASED ON EVIDENCE, LOGICAL REASONING, PREDICTIONS, AND MODELING.
19 Sample QuestionIn scientific research, scientists should clearly publish the procedures used in their experiments, along with their observations and data. Whys is it important for someone else to know the procedure?Knowing the procedure allows for replication of the experimentKnowing the procedure helps others understand the reasons for the experiment.Knowing the procedure demonstrates the technical proficiency of the scientist.Knowing the procedure can explain how the data were interpreted by the scientist.
20 The following statements were taken from the procedures of four different investigations. 1Pour 50 milliliters (mL) of water down four inclined surfaces.2Roll a marble down the ramp from a height of 10 centimeters (cm), 20 cm, and 30 cm.3Take the mass of five rocks separately and then determine the average mass in grams (g).4Conduct four trials of counting the bubbles produced by a water plant for 1 minute (min) each.The statement from which investigation is an example of repetition(repeated trial)?A. Investigation 1B. Investigation 2C. Investigation 3D. Investigation 4
21 Sample QuestionUntil the 1500’s doctors thought diseases were caused spontaneously. Scientists began proposing that diseases were caused by seedlike entities that could be passed among people. After the invention of the microscope, doctors came to know that many diseases were actually caused by microscopic living organisms, like bacteria. What does this suggest about the nature of scientific knowledge?A. Scientific knowledge should not be considered valid because it changes over time.B. Technology has improved enough that scientific knowledge can stop changing.C. New discoveries and evidence are more important than repeatable results.D. Scientific knowledge changes over time based on evidence.
22 Sample QuestionScientists create both scientific theories and scientific laws as they make observations and conduct experiments about the natural world. Which of the following statements most accurately compares the difference between scientific theories and scientific laws?A. Scientific laws are based on evidence, while scientific theories are not.B. Scientific theories involve only biology, while laws involve all types of science.C. Scientific theories involve mathematical equations, while scientific laws are based on observations.D. Scientific theories are ideas that explain natural events, while scientific laws more reliably predict natural events.