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The Nature of Science Hello my future scientists!!!

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature of Science Hello my future scientists!!!"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature of Science Hello my future scientists!!!

2 What is science!?!  Science is a way of learning more about the natural world.  You use scientific thinking every day to make decisions like cooking, playing sports, riding a bike, etc.

3 Branches of Science Life Science  Life science is the study of living systems and the ways in which they interact.  Life scientist can study living organisms and how they interact.

4 Branches of Science Earth Science  Earth science is the study of earth systems and the systems in space.  It involves the study of nonliving things such as rocks, soil, clouds, rivers, oceans, planets, stars, meteors, black holes, weather, and climate systems.

5 Branches of Science. Physical science  The study of matter and energy is known as physical science.  There are two type of physical science: chemistry and physics.  Chemistry is the study of matter and the interactions of matter.  Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.  Physics is the study of energy and it’s ability to change matter.  Energy is the ability to cause change in matter.

6 What is a system?  A system is a collection of structures, cycles and processes that relate to and interact with each other  Parts of a system interact  System are not only found in science…  Example of a system: School (buildings, chairs, teachers, students pencils, etc…)

7 Science and Technology  Technology is the practical use of science, or applied science as illustrated in the image.  In other words, the use of knowledge to solve practical problems *Caption: Olympic swimsuits are examples of technology in science.

8 Scientific Theories  A scientific theory is an attempt to explain a pattern observed repeatedly in the natural world.  Theories in science are not guesses or opinions, they are observations and results from many investigations that can always change. Scientific Laws  Scientific law is a rule that describes a pattern in nature.  An observation becomes a scientific law when if it’s been observed repeatedly.  The law stands until someone makes an observation that does not follow the law.

9 Scientific Method  Scientific Method is a step by step list of procedures to solve a scientific problem.

10 Scientific Method 1- Recognize the Problem  Scientific problem is a question that can be answered using scientific methods.  Observations: bits of information gathered with your senses.  Inference: a conclusion about an observation.

11 STOP!!! See “Observations and Inference” PPT

12 Scientific Method 2- Form a Hypothesis  Hypothesis: a statement/an educated guess that can be tested.  Hypotheses are based on observations, research, and prior knowledge of a problem.

13 Scientific Methods 3- Test Your Hypothesis  An experimental investigation is a series of carefully planned steps used to test a hypothesis.  Independent variable: the factor that changes in an experiment.  Dependent variable: the factor, or outcome, which will be measured in an experiment.  To test a variable, scientists often use constants.  Constants: factors in an experiment that stay the same.  Control: a standard used for comparison.

14 STOP!!!! See “Identifying Variables” PPT!!!

15 Scientific Method 4- Analyze Your Data  Data are collected during any scientific study.  Numeric values such as length, volume, weight, or temperature.  Observations that use adjectives and phrases such as big, fast, green, bright, short, and weak.  Data must be recorded and studied.

16 Scientific Method 5- Draw Conclusions and Communicate  Conclusion: a statement based on what is observed.  To make conclusions valid, the experiment must be repeated.  An important step in a scientific process is communicate the results of an investigation.

17 Reliability  A science experiment should be replicable (repeatable).  The basis of science knowledge is in its consistency and that means that the experiment should be reproducible. An experiment that is reliable should perform exactly the same way under the same conditions and produce similar results. If this experiment produces differently from the first trial then the results from the first trial can be considered an observation.

18 SAFETY!!! 1. Never start without your teacher 2. Read directions 3. Fire/Electrical Precautions 4. Chemical Precautions 5. Proper Equipment 6. No Running, playing, eating or throwing items 7. Clean up and dispose of items properly

19 Models in Science  Physical models  Models you can see and touch  Computer models  Models built with computer software that can model events that can take a long time or take place too quickly  Idea models  Describe how people think of something in the natural world Fig. Computer Model of DNA

20 Models in Science  Models make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe directly  Computer models can show Earth moving, allow you to see things that are too small or to see situations that are too dangerous to show or impossible to show (like the ocean floor)

21 Measurements and Units  Measurement is the relationship of a physical quantity (such as a length or a mass) to a unit of measurement, (meter, kilogram, etc0 SI Base Units

22 SI Units

23 Derived Units

24 Conversions

25 Organizing Data  Data Tables: easier to spot trends in the data that can support or disprove a hypothesis.

26 Graphs  Line Graph : shows changes that occur in related variables.  The Independent (manipulated) variable is on the x-axis (horizontal axis).  The dependent (r) variable is on the y-axis (vertical axis).

27 Line Graph

28 Bar Graph  Used to compare a set of measurements, amounts, or changes.

29 Circle Graph  A divided circle that shows how a part or share of something relates to the whole.

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