4 Section II – The Scientific Method Though the scientific method has several steps, real scientists may take the steps in different order, skip steps or repeat steps in order to try to find the answer to a question.
5 b. Measurements are observations made with instruments. Ask a question (Step 1)1. Questions are usually asked after scientists have made a lot of observations.a. Observations are any use of the senses to gather information. (Sometimes this is called Qualitative data)b. Measurements are observations made with instruments.(Sometimes this is called Quantitative data)
6 From a Hypothesis (Step 2) 1. A Hypothesis is a possible explanation or answer to a question.a. Scientists generally form hypotheses that can be tested. Where observations and can be made and information can be gathered.
7 Hypothesis that cannot be tested are neither right or wrong because there is no way to support or not support them.( these hypothesis exist but are neither right or wrong but are not considered valid, because to be valid, they must be testable and supported by evidence that means proven right!)
8 Test the hypothesis (Step 3) 1. After a hypothesis is formed, you must test it to determine if it is a reasonable answer to your question.
9 2. One way to test a hypothesis is a controlled experiment. A controlled experiment hasIndependent variable- the part of the experiment you manipulate.Dependant variable – the part of the experiment that changed because of what you changed.Controlled factors- What other things in the experiment must be held the same so that it does not mess up the results.
10 Analyze the results (Step 4) 1. All of the collected data needs to be studied to see if the test supports the hypothesis.2. Putting information into tables and graphs helps to make the relationships between the information easier to see.
11 Draw conclusions (Step 5) 1. After looking at the data you must decide if the information supports your hypothesis or not.a. If it does support the hypothesis you can ask further questions.b. If it does not support the hypothesis you can check you results for errors or modify your hypothesis.
12 Communicate results (Step 6) 1. Most scientist publish their results in magazines and academic papers.2. Most students publish results in a lab paper.REMEMBER-NOT all scientists use the scientific method.Scientific Method Video Courtesy:
14 Lab designImagine you are conducting an experiment in which you are testing the effects of the height of the ramp on the speed at which a toy car goes down the ramp.Hypothesis - what is the relationship you are trying to discover?Independent variable- the part of the experiment you manipulate.Dependant variable – the part of the experiment that changed becauseof what you changed.Controlled factors- What other things in the experiment must be heldthe same so that it does not mess up the results.
15 Lab designA doctor has developed a new headache medicine. How should he set up his test trials to figure out if it works?HypothesisIndependent variableDependant variableControlled factors
16 Lab design Med 1 Med 2 Med 3 No med People with headaches out of 100 5 2030What to the results tell you about the different medicines?Why is a group with no medicine included?
17 Building scientific knowledge. 1. Answers in sciences are rarely final answers. As our understanding grows our ideas about the world around us changes.Courtesy: treats/menu/images/cone.gif & home.earthlink.net/ ~smithster/Biggifs/edgewld.gif &
18 2. A Scientific Theory is a unifying explanation for a broad range of hypothesis and observations that have been supported by testing (Often explains why). It can be changed as new observations are made and new hypothesis are tested.
19 3. A Scientific Law is a summary of many experiments and observations 3. A Scientific Law is a summary of many experiments and observations. They tell you how things work. They only explain what happens, not why.
20 What is the difference between a theory and a law? A theory is based on supported hypothesis's where as a law is based on the results of the experiment instead of the hypothesisA _____ is a summary of many different experimental results and observationsLaw
21 III. USING MODELS IN SCIENCE (p.20-23) A. What is a model? 1. A model is a representation of an object or system. Including scientific ideas and objects2. They can be used to make predictions or explain observations.3. Models are never exactly like the object or system.4.They can be tools used to conduct an investigation5.They can illustrate theoriesIn what other ways might models be helpful?
22 SI Video Courtesy: http://www5.unitedstreaming.com/index.cfm IV. MEASUREMENT AND SAFETY IN SCIENCE (p.24-27)A. The International System of Units1. It helps scientists compare their information.2. All units are based on the number 10.SI Video Courtesy:
23 3. Length – The Meter is the basic unit of length 3. Length – The Meter is the basic unit of length. Other SI units of length are larger or smaller than meters by multiples of 10. The tool used to measure length is a meter stick or ruler1. 10 meters is equal to how many cm?1000cmHow many mm?10,000mmmeters is equal to how many km?0.5 kmcm is equal to how many meters?5 meters5000mmHow many km?0.005 kmCourtesy:
24 4. Volume- the amount of space that something occupies 4. Volume- the amount of space that something occupies. The tool used to measure volume is a graduated cylindera. Volume of liquids is expressed in Liters (L).b. Liters are based on the meter, 1000 liters will fit into a cubic meter.c. A milliliter (ml) will fit in to a box one centimeter (cm) on a side.1. How many ml in one cm3 ?one2. How many ml in a liter?1000
25 d. Volumes of solid objects are expressed in cubic meters (m3) smaller objects are expressed in cm3 or mm3.e. To find the volume of a rectangular shape, multiply length x width x height.f. To find the volume of an irregularly shaped object, measure how much liquid it displaces.What is the label or unit for the volume of a rock?cm 3 because it is a solidWhat is the label for a volume of gasoline?ml because it is a liquidWhat is the volume of a box that is 3 cm long, 10 cm tall and 3 cm wide?3 x10 x3 = 90cm3There is 30 ml of water in a graduated cylinder. After a rock is placed in the cylinder the water level measures 45ml. What is the volume of the rock?15 cm3
26 5. Mass- the amount of matter something is made of 5. Mass- the amount of matter something is made of. The kilogram is the basic unit of mass. Grams are used to measure smaller objects kg is a metric ton.The tool used toMeasure mass isA balance.Courtesy:
27 6. Temperature- how hot or cold something is 6. Temperature- how hot or cold something is. Scientist usually uses the Celsius scale (Co) to measure temperature. Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature. Fahrenheit is the most common unit of temperature in the United States.Courtesy:
28 (Demonstrate triangle equation) B. Derived Quantities- formed from a combination of other measurements.1. Area- a measure of how much surface an object has. It is determined by multiplying length time’s width.2. Density- is mass per unit volumeD = m/v1. A cereal box has the dimensions of 27 cm x19cm x 6 cm. What is the area of the front of the box. ( Hint; how can you tell which numbers to use?)27cm x 19 cm =513cm22. What is the volume of the box?27cm x 19 cm x 6 cm = 3078 cm33. If the box has a mass of 340 g what is the density of the box?340g / 3078 cm3= 0.110g/cm3 ( three significant figures)(Demonstrate triangle equation)
29 1. Pre read labs and read the safety information on p.622. C. Safety rules-1. Pre read labs and read the safety information on p.622.Courtesy: