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Science in Our World Chapter 1 7 th Science-GIBB.

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Presentation on theme: "Science in Our World Chapter 1 7 th Science-GIBB."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science in Our World Chapter 1 7 th Science-GIBB

2 Scientific Method Definition - the ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems 6 Steps 1.Ask a question 2.Form a hypothesis 3.Test the hypothesis 4. Analyze the results 5. Draw conclusions 6.Communicate results 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS

3 6 Steps to Scientific Method

4 Ask question –Focus or purpose –Example: How does sunlight effect plant growth? Form hypothesis –Possible answer or explanation to question –Use what you know (research) –Predictions If-then statements –Must be testable Testable or Not Testable examples –Example: If the plant receives little or no sunlight then the plant growth will be limited. Scientific Method 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS

5 Scientific Method Test hypothesis –Create an experiment that will clearly show if a certain factor causes a given outcome Factor- anything in an experiment that can influence the outcome –Example: The only factor we are testing is the amount of sunlight. We wouldnt want to water the plants differently or put them in different pots. –Have a controlled experiment Controlled Experiment- uses a control group and one or more experimental group(s), all factors are the same except one –Example: 3 plants (same type), Plant A receives no sunlight, Plant B receives 2 hours of sunlight a day and Plant C receives the while days sunlight Variable- the one change that is being tested in the controlled experiment –Example: amount of sunlight –Collect data during the experiment 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS

6 Analyze results –Done once experiment is over and all data is collected –Construct reasonable explanations based on the evidence you collected in your experiment –Tables, graphs, and charts –Example: see chart Draw conclusions –Do the results support the hypothesis? –It is ok to be wrong Communicate results –Speeches, reports, and repeated experiments Scientific Method 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS

7 Scientific Models Definition – representation of an object or system –Example: Map of Friendswood 3 Kinds of Models: –Physical – look like the item they are modeling –Mathematical – made up of mathematical equations and data –Conceptual – system of ideas, groupings, or classification Scale models – ratios between models dimensions and the object it models remains constant –Example: maps Theory – explanation for hypothesis and observations that have been supported by testing, it explains and predicts Law – summary of many experimental results and observations, tells you how things work 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

8 Equipment and Measurement Tools for Measuring (examples) –Stopwatch (time) –Meter stick (length) –Balances (mass) –Thermometers (temperature) –Spring Scales (force) –Graduated cylinder (volume) Tools for Analyzing (examples) –Calculators –Graphs –Figures –Computers 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

9 Equipment and Measurement Why do we need these tools? –Measure your desk with hand vs. ruler International System of Units (SI) –Almost all countries use this system –Scientists can share information –Based on the number 10 –Makes conversions easier 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

10 Equipment and Measurement Length –SI unit – meter –KHDMDCM model Area –How much surface an object has –2 measurements: length x width –Expressed as square units, m 2, km 2, cm 2 –What is the area of your textbook? Volume –Amount of space something occupies or amount of space something takes up –3 measurements: Length x width x height Volume of boxes –Expressed in cubic units, cm 3, L 3 –Measured by graduated cylinders Volume of irregular shaped objects Amount of water it displaces –Rock in a graduated cylinder Theory – explanation for hypothesis and observations that have been supported by testing, it explains and predicts Law – summary of many experimental results and observations, tells you how things work 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4

11 Equipment and Measurement Mass –Amount of matter –Typically measured in kilograms (large items) or grams (small items) –Which has more mass, a kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of bricks? Density –Amount of matter in a given volume –2 measurements: mass / volume –Expressed as g/mL or g/cm 3 Temperature –Measure of how hot or cold something is –Expressed as degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or Kelvin (SI) Water boils at 212 F and 100 C Water freezes at 32 F and 0 C Body temperature is 98.6 F 7 th Science-GIBB TEKS 7.4


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