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Jae K. (Jim) Park Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Jae K. (Jim) Park Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jae K. (Jim) Park Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1

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3  All solid wastes received are spread and compacted in cells or layers within a confined area.  Cell: compacted wastes and daily cover material (3 m high)  Lift: a series of adjoining cells, all same height (3~5 m)  Orderly operations: maintain a narrow working face  Cover material: function of surface of wastes to be covered, thickness of the soil needed to perform the particular functions, and cell configuration  Cell: rectangular in surface area, its sides sloped as steeply as practical operation will permit. Optimum: 10%, up to 30%  Solid wastes are spread in layers not greater than 2 ft thick  Excavation/Trench method  Area method  Canyon/depression method 3

4  Ideal for areas where an adequate depth of cover material is available at the site and where the water table is not near the surface  Excavated sells: 1000 ft by 1000 ft; side slope 1.5:1 to 2:1  Trench: 200~1000 ft by 15~50 ft; 3~10 ft in depth 4

5  Ideal where the terrain is unsuitable for the excavation of cells or trenches, e.g., high G/W level.  Cover material must be hauled in by truck or earthmoving equipment from adjacent land or from borrow-pit areas. 5

6  Use canyons, ravins, dry borrow pits, and quarries  Cover material must be available to cover the individual lifts and to provide a final cover over the entire landfill when the final height is reached. 6

7  Procedure to exclude hazardous waste  Apply daily cover  Control disease vectors  Control explosive gases  Control access to LF  Control run-on and run-off  Protect surface water and groundwater  Restrict liquid  Maintain operating records 7

8  Every load of trash entering the landfill must be weighed and inspected.  Users will be charged per ton. 8

9  Large loads of waste to the disposal cell (working face)  Covered with alternative daily cover or 6 inches of soil 9

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13  Daily cover: placed at the end of the working day; 15 cm (6 in.) of compacted cover on a daily basis; if exposed > 1 wk but < 1 yr, daily cover is sufficient.  Purposes: moisture control, capping of refuse as a litter control measure, odor reduction, control of rodent and bird, requirement for vehicle access to the active face, fire prevention, reduced unsightliness of the facility  Coarse-grained soils: compacted to 60~80 kg/m 3 (100~135 lb/ft 3 )  Alternative daily cover (ADC) materials: mulches of leaves and wood, foam, geotextiles, plastic sheets, shredded brush and vegetation  Requires long-term planning due to the substantial quantities involved  Intermediate cover: 30 cm (12 in.) thick, applied to fill areas that are inactive for > 1 yr.  Final cover: encourage surface runoff, to retain moisture, reduce or enhance landfill migration, provide final shaping 13

14  A compactor to reduce the volume of MSW  Compaction with the use of global positioning systems (GPS), alternative daily covers, and bioreaction can lead to extension of the landfill lifespan by 20%.  Dry tomb: 1,100~1,300 lb/yd 3  Bioreactor: ~2,000 lb/yd 3  Inclusion of differential settlement: 2,200~2,600 lb/yd 3 14 putting_squeeze/

15  Precipitation falling on the open portions of the landfill, prevention of standing water from remaining in depressions in the landfill cover, and run-on of rainfall from adjacent areas  Good operation and design must focus on minimizing sources of moisture introduction.  Strategies to minimize run-on  Maintain as small a working face as possible  Continuously place and grade the daily cover  Maintain daily, intermediate, and final cover to avoid depressions  Design and maintain a surface water control system to minimize run-on and maximize run-off 15

16  Bulky wastes - white goods, furniture, and tree stumps  Dispose in a separate section of the landfill  Dump at the toe of the slope and compact other wastes around  Crush objects on solid ground  Salvage and resell the material for scrap  Construction/demolition wastes: may be usable for roadways directly or after mulching and shredding  Biomedical wastes: require special approval; incinerated or sterilized prior to disposal  Pesticide waste containers: disposed only after rinsed  Asbestos wastes: put in closed containers or bags  Automobile tires: banned in most states; place tires at the bottom of the working face and compact solid wastes on top 16

17  Noise control  Use of trees and berms to attenuate noise  Proper phasing of operations to create a buffer zone or barrier between the source and nearby residents  Appropriate equipment maintenance  Regulation of hours of operation to reflect adjacent land uses  Maximize the separation distance between the active site face and residents  Odor control  Normally a seasonal problem; sources - putrescible wastes, carcasses, sludges, landfill gas, sulfides and mercaptans, and leachate seeps  Immediate covering, masking chemicals, a horizontal gas collection system, proper venting and flaring of landfill gas, collection or prevention of leachate escape 17

18  Litter control  Unacceptable appearance, a food source for vermin, blight, and fires  Caused by open loads, windy-day operation, operational techniques, and dumping practices: Measures  Cover open loads  Move operations to protected areas during windy conditions, plant some windbreaks, or operate the working face so that it is opposite to the direction of prevailing winds. Alternatively use movable fencing  Unload solid wastes at the bottom of the slope and push materials up the slope  Compact and cover the refuse more frequently during the day  Confine the dumping area to a minimal surface area  Collect the litter on an ongoing basis 18

19  Should not tip over and release trash during high wind conditions (50% wind resistance at 70 mph)  Reduce trash retrieving labor cost  Easy to relocate on site 19

20  Dust control  Consider using all-weather roads with proper maintenance  On dirt road, apply calcium chloride at 0.2~0.4 kg/m 2 (0.4~0.8 lb/yd 2 ); apply water from trucks as necessary  Limit earthmoving activities  Use vegetation and windbreaks  Bird control  Danger to aircraft and contamination of surface water  Use elevated wires and/or string netting over a fill  Rodent control  Difficult to eliminate; must be total elimination  Eliminate food  Insect control  Flies and mosquitoes  Cover the solid waste and exterminate 20

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22  No hazardous waste 22  No open burning

23 23  No bulk liquids  Daily cover

24 24  Vector control  Water management

25 25  Operating record keeping  Routine monitoring Weight and volume records Records of excabations Log of special occuraences Record of personnel training Copy of written notification to authorities Disposal site records Records for disposal reporting system Groundwater Methane (gas)

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