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EXAMINATION OF MODERN SANITARY LANDFILLS W. Gregory Vogt Chair, Sanitary Landfill Working Group, ISWA Vice President, SCS Engineers.

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Presentation on theme: "EXAMINATION OF MODERN SANITARY LANDFILLS W. Gregory Vogt Chair, Sanitary Landfill Working Group, ISWA Vice President, SCS Engineers."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXAMINATION OF MODERN SANITARY LANDFILLS W. Gregory Vogt Chair, Sanitary Landfill Working Group, ISWA Vice President, SCS Engineers

2 Major Challenges Acceptance and Approvals for: –Facility Expansions –Siting New Facilities Operational Practices Regulatory Enforcement

3 Expansions and New Facilities Few New Sites Receive Approvals Public is More Organized Against But Understands the Need Large Expansions and Quarry Fills Stabilization Concerns

4 Expansions and New Facilities Closure of Poorly Located Sites Large, New Regional Facilities, Larger Equipment, Rail Access Leachate Recirculation Combined with Better Compaction New Landfills Atop Old Landfills New Structures Atop Old Landfills

5 Biogas Migration Protection

6 Robust Foundation Designs

7 California Office Park

8 Operating Practices Control of Moisture (Liquids) Promoting Run-off Work Areas Cover Application Weather Issues Problem Wastes Environmental Controls (Birds, Dust, Litter, Vectors, Odor) Landfill Biogas

9

10 Moisture Control Keep Liquid Wastes Out Good Compaction Reach Final Elevation Quickly Apply Effective Intermediate and Final Cover

11 Waste In Trench Landfill Trench landfills not approved in most countries

12 Ponding... Infiltrates the waste mass

13 Ponding Causes Leachate

14 Promote Run-Off Eliminate Ponding (Depressions) Divert Water From Wastes Control Run-On

15 Run-on/Run-off Controls

16

17 Run-off Control... By Grade Breaks

18 Stormwater Interception... Direct Run-off

19 Flooded Cell... Requires Pumping

20 Don’t Forget Road Drainage

21 Run-Off to Sediment Basin

22 Basin With Run-off

23 Slope Erosion... Collected

24 Basin Collects Sediment

25 Erosion Control — Silt Fence... Impacting Working Face and Compaction

26 Erosion Control — Rip-rap Ditch

27 Erosion Control — Jute Matting

28 Management of Work Areas Controlled Working Face Compaction Cell Construction

29 Uncontrolled Working Face Poor Compactor Practice

30 Small Working Face

31 Compaction Generally Work Up The Slope Keep Layers To 1 Meter - Loose Maintain Proper Slope – 3:1 (Horiz: Vert) Maximum Efficiency: Passes

32 Compaction Efficiency - Depth Thickness of Layer

33 Compaction Efficiency With Number Of Passes Number of Passes

34 Cell Construction Layer Thickness

35 Cell Construction Working Face Cover

36 Cell Construction Layer Thickness

37 Landfill Cover Daily Alternative Daily Covers Intermediate Final

38 Daily Cover Sanitary Landfill Requires –Control Litter, Odors and Vermin –Fire Protection Generally 15 cm Compacted Soil

39 Forget the Daily Cover?

40 Daily Soil Cover Stockpile... Even in the Winter

41 Alternate Daily Cover (ADC) Foams Slurries Blankets/Tarps Shredded Waste (e.g., Tires) Ash and Residues Contaminated Soils Compost

42 ADC — Foam Daily Cover

43 Tarp — On Roller... Note Assistant

44 Tarp Roller Attachment to Compactor

45 Intermediate Cover The Same As Daily Cover Plus: –At Least 0.3 meters (Soil) –Reduce Infiltration –Control Gas Migration –Provide “Operating” Surface

46 Final Cover As Specified In Permit Final Control of Infiltration and Gas Support Vegetative Growth

47 Landfill Biogas

48 Monitoring Wells

49 Biogas Sampling Well

50 Gas Monitoring Well

51 Methane and Biogas Meter

52 Methane Sample Instrument

53 Biogas Management Options Venting to Atmosphere Flare Burning Incineration (Controlled Process) Recovery as an Energy Source

54 Active Biogas Control Gas Well Connected to Collection Pipe

55 Active Collection System

56 Biogas Extraction Well

57 Active Biogas Systems Collection Pipe With Supports... Water is Maintenance Item

58 Active Biogas Systems Blower for Vacuum

59 Active Biogas Extraction Blowers and Controls

60 Passive Biogas Systems

61 Open Pipe Vented to Atmosphere

62 Potential for Biogas Recovery 1,000,000 Tons of Waste Minimum Site Closed Less Than 5 Years 12 meters Minimum Average Depth Impermeable Cover

63 LFG Use Options Sale of Generated Electricity Sale as Natural Gas Alternative Burn in Flare Value of Carbon Credits

64 Electricity From Biogas Large Equipment

65 Electric Power Units... Or Portable Units

66 Burn in Flare No Treatment No Energy Recovery Still Requires Water Removal

67 Enclosed Flare & Candle Flare

68 Regulatory Enforcement Documents Permits Approved Plans and Specifications Variances Compliance Agreements

69 Types of Plans Design Plans - Design Engineer Operating Plans - Landfill Manager

70 Summary Gain Acceptance from the Public Through Use of Good Engineering Design and Regulatory Compliance Design and Operations Must Address Control of All Landfill Issues (odors, contamination) Regulators, Inspectors, and Landfill Operators Should Receive Training


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