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 ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition:  environment friendly  cause no health hazard  economically less demanding  maximum.

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Presentation on theme: " ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition:  environment friendly  cause no health hazard  economically less demanding  maximum."— Presentation transcript:

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2  ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition:  environment friendly  cause no health hazard  economically less demanding  maximum recycling options  Should not be labour intensive

3  The treatment of solid waste prior to disposal includes:  recycling  compaction  pulverisation

4  ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition:  environment friendly  cause no health hazard  economically less demanding  maximum recycling options  Should not be labour intensive

5  Disposal without treatment:  dumping in water  dumping on land  direct disposal (sanitary land field)  Disposal involve some treatment  incineration  biological treatment  pyrolysis

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7  Landfill method  Define as the physical facilities use for the disposal of residual in the surface soils of the earth.  Sanitary landfill refer to engineered facilities for the disposal of SWM designed and operated to minimize the public health and environmental impacts

8  One of the primary technologies use to disposal of solid waste.  The most economically if suitable land is available at low cost, environmentally accepted method and simple.  The only method that can deal with all material in solid waste  Direct disposal without treatment and Also used for the final disposal of treated waste.

9  Sanitary Landfill  Define as:  Method of disposing refuse on land without creating nuisance or hazard to public health  or safety by utilizing the principle of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area  The goal for design and operation of modern landfill is to eliminate/ minimize the impacts to human and environment

10  and to reduce it to the smallest practical volume and cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each day’s or at such more frequent as many be necessary  also call as control tipping and involves the covering of the waste daily with soil or other modern material  consist depositing the wastes in 1 -2 m tick layer in low-laying lands or excavation

11  The element s should be consider in the planning, design and operation of landfill are as below:  Landfill layout and design  Landfill operations and management  The reaction occurring in the landfill  The management of leachate  Environmental monitoring  Landfill closure

12  Siting of new landfill is one of the difficult tasks faced by the most communities.  Several factors must be consider in evaluating potential site for-long term disposal of solid waste.  Final selection of a disposal site usually is best on the result of a detail site survey, engineering design, cost study and EIA.

13  The factors should be consider are ;  Haul distance  Location restriction  Available land area  Site access  Soil condition and topography  Climatological conditions  Surface water hydrology  Geologic and hydrogeologic conditions  Local environmental conditions  Potential ultimate uses for the completed site

14 First Step  Existing site drainage must be modified to route any runoff away from the landfill area.  Drainage of the landfill area itself must be modified to route water away from the initial fill area  Construction of access roads, weighing facilities and fences installation.

15 Second Step  The excavation and preparation of the landfill bottom and sub surface site  Modern landfills are constructed in sections – allows only the small part of the unprotected landfill surface to be expose to precipitation.  Excavations are carried out over time – not prepare the landfill bottom at once  Excavated material can be stockpiled on unexcavated soil to minimized the precipitation problem

16  If the bottom of the landfill is lined at once, the storm water runoff must be remove from the portion of the landfill that is not being used.  To minimized cost, it desirable to obtain the cover material from the landfill site whenever possible.  The excavated material stockpiled for later use.  Vadose zone and groundwater monitoring equipment is installed before the landfill liner is laid down.

17  Leachate collection and extraction faciliteis are place within or on top of the liner  Usually the liner extends up the excavated wall of landfill.  Installation of the horizontal gas recover trenches at the bottom of the landfill  To minimized the release of VOCs, vacuum is applied and air is drown through the completed portion of landfill  The gas that is remove must be burned under controlled condition to destroy the VOCs

18  A soil berm must be constructed at the downwind side of the planned fill area before the fill operation begin.  Foe the excavated landfill, the wall of the excavation usually served as the initial compaction face.

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23  The waste is placed in cell beginning along the compaction face  The waste deposited in each operating period usually one day from in an individual cell.  Wastes deposited are spread out in 45 – 60 cm layers and compacted  Typically the cell height vary from 2.8 – 4 metres

24  The length of the working face varies with the site condition the size of the operation  The width of the a cell varies from cm –depending on the design and capacity of of the landfill.  The exposed faces of the cell are covered with a thin layer of soil (15 to 30 cm) at the end of each operating period.  After or more lifts has be place, horizontal gas recovery trenches can be excavated in the completed space.

25  The excavated trenches are filled with gravel and perforated plastic pipes are installed in the trenches  Successive lifts are place on top of another until the final design grade is reached.  A cover layer is applied to the completed landfill section to  minimized infiltration of precipitation  to route drainage away from the active section of the landfill  The landscaping to control erosion

26 Biological reactions  The organic material in MSW lead to the production of landfill gas and liquids.  Decomposition process usually proceed aerobically for a short period.  During aerobic decomposition, CO 2 is the gas produced  Once the available O 2 has been consumed, the composition become anaerobic and the organic matter converted to CO 2 and CH 4 and ammonia and hydrogen Sulfide.

27 Chemical Reaction  Include dissolution and suspension of landfill materials and biological conversion products in the liquid percolating, evaporation and vaporization of chemical compound and water  The organic compounds can subsequently be released into the atmosphere – through the soil or from uncover leachate treatment facilitie.  Other chemical reactions include those between certain organic compound and clay liner.

28 Physical reactions  The important physical changes are:  the lateral diffusion of gases and emission of landfill gases to surrounding environment  Movement of leachate within the landfill and into underlying soil  Settlement caused by consolidation and decomposition of landfill material  Landfill gas movement and emission particularly important consideration in landfill management because;

29  Internal pressure could causing the landfill cover crack and leak  Escaping landfill gas may carry trace carcinogenic and teratogenic compounds into the environment  Because high CH 4 contents, may be can cause burning or explosion  Leachate migration is another concern

30  Uncontrolled release of landfill gas  The impact of uncontrolled discharge of landfill gas  Uncontrolled release of leachate  The breeding of disease vector  The health and the environmental impact

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32 THANK YOU


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