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CE 326 Principles of Environmental Engineering Prof. Tim Ellis February 4, 2008 Municipal Solid Wastes

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Presentation on theme: "CE 326 Principles of Environmental Engineering Prof. Tim Ellis February 4, 2008 Municipal Solid Wastes"— Presentation transcript:

1 CE 326 Principles of Environmental Engineering Prof. Tim Ellis February 4, 2008 Municipal Solid Wastes

2 What is a solid waste all wastes from human and animal activities that are normally s_____ or semi-s_______ and are d___________ (includes municipal, industrial, and hazardous wastes).

3 What is Solid Waste Management? activities involved with the reduction of g_____________, reduction of g_____________, c_____________ c_____________

4 What is Solid Waste Management? s__________, t__________, p_________, and d_____________ of solid wastes.

5 Trash to energy

6 What is Solid Waste Management? solid waste management concerns public h__________, public h__________, e______________, e______________, conservation, conservation, aesthetics, and aesthetics, and other environmental considerations. other environmental considerations.

7 What is Integrated Solid Waste Management? S______ R______ R______ and R___ T__________ D_______ Activities designed to meet the hierarchy of MSW management objectives

8 Waste Generation Waste handling, separation, storage, and processing at the source: shredding, baling separation for recycling Collection Transfer Station Processing Facility recycling resource recovery incineration composting Ultimate Disposal landfill

9 Quantities of Solid Waste Produced total production is approximately = _____ million tons/yr (decrease of 1.6 M tons from 2004) average solid waste generated per person = ___ lbs/day total production = _________ tons/day density = _____ lbs/yd 3 density = _____ lbs/yd 3 if placed in 3 foot layer, it would cover _____ sq. yds. if placed in 3 foot layer, it would cover _____ sq. yds. ____ sq. miles ____ sq. miles if placed in 1 cu. ft. stacks, it would rise ______ miles high if placed in 1 cu. ft. stacks, it would rise ______ miles high

10 One year’s worth of solid waste from a single household

11 Characterization of Solid Waste Kind, composition, and source. Material Product category

12 Characterization of Solid Waste Two mains categories: G_________ animal and vegetable waste resulting from f______ preparation, originates primarily from k________ and r__________ large part of the putrescible matter in MSW, source of o_______

13 Characterization of Solid Waste R__________: combustible and non-combustible components of MSW combustible and non-combustible components of MSW combustible fraction includes: p_______, r______, cartons, boxes, furniture, tree branches,etc. p_______, r______, cartons, boxes, furniture, tree branches,etc. T___________ is synonymous with combustible portion of rubbish T___________ is synonymous with combustible portion of rubbishNoncombustibles includes i_______ portion of rubbish: includes i_______ portion of rubbish: tin cans, metals, glass, etc.

14 Other categories A________ S_______ Refuse Dead A__________ Abandoned v____________ I____________ Wastes (food processing wastes, lumber and metal scraps, shavings) D__________ Wastes (lumber, pipes, bricks, masonry) C_____________ Wastes (lumber, pipe, scraps) Special Wastes (includes hazardous substances, explosives, radioactive materials) W_____________Treatment Plant Residues (includes screenings and grit)

15 MSW Composition by Material p_________ and paperboard g__________ m_______ (steel, aluminum, other nonferrous metals) p__________ r_________ and leather t___________ w_________ other m___________

16 MSW Composition by Product Category c_____________ and packaging n___________ goods (e.g., newspapers, “selected consumer electronics”) d___________ goods (e.g., appliances) y_________ trimmings f__________ scraps other

17 Integrated Solid Waste Management Priority is on s________ r____________

18 Second Priority following Source Reduction is Recycling and Reuse. _______% recycling rate in 1999 (64 M tons) vs. 32% in 2005 (58.4 M tons MSW M tons compost) ________ curbside recycling programs in 1998 vs. 8,550 in 2005 ________ yard trimmings and composting programs in 1997 vs. 3,470 in 2005 combusted for energy recovery 2.7 M tons M tons M tons M tons M tons (13.6%) M tons (13.6%) 2005

19 Least Favorable MSW Management Activity: Ultimate Disposal (e.g., landfills) Number of landfills in U.S. continues to decrease from about ________ in 1988 to about ________ today Number of landfills in U.S. continues to decrease from about ________ in 1988 to about ________ today

20 Landfills must: keep out regulated h__________ w_________ keep out regulated h__________ w_________ apply a d______ c__________ apply a d______ c__________ control d________ v______ populations (rodents, flies, mosquitoes, etc.) control d________ v______ populations (rodents, flies, mosquitoes, etc.) m________ m_______ gas m________ m_______ gas restrict p________ a_________ restrict p________ a_________ control s____ w______ run-on and run-off control s____ w______ run-on and run-off protect s______ w______ from pollutants and protect s______ w______ from pollutants and keep appropriate r_________ keep appropriate r_________

21 Design Standards Landfills must be designed to ensure d______ w______ standards are not exceeded in ground water. Landfills must be designed to ensure d______ w______ standards are not exceeded in ground water. Landfills must be designed with a c__________ l______ made of synthetic material covering a two-foot c___ l_____. Landfills must be designed with a c__________ l______ made of synthetic material covering a two-foot c___ l_____.

22 Ground-water Monitoring and Corrective Action All landfills must have monitoring w____ to detect any groundwater contamination. All landfills must have monitoring w____ to detect any groundwater contamination. if ground-water is contaminated, the owner/operator is required to clean it up to acceptable standards to protect human health and the environment. if ground-water is contaminated, the owner/operator is required to clean it up to acceptable standards to protect human health and the environment.

23 Closure and Post-Closure Care When a landfill stops accepting waste it must be covered to keep any liquid away from the buried waste. When a landfill stops accepting waste it must be covered to keep any liquid away from the buried waste. Once the landfill is closed, the owner/operator is responsible for Once the landfill is closed, the owner/operator is responsible for maintaining the final cover, monitoring ground water and methane gas, and continuing leachate management for 30 years.

24 Financial Assurance Landfill owners/operators must show that they have f___________ mechanisms to cover the costs of closure, post-closure care, and any needed cleanups from releases. Landfill owners/operators must show that they have f___________ mechanisms to cover the costs of closure, post-closure care, and any needed cleanups from releases. Financial mechanisms can include s_______ bonds, letters of credit, insurance, or guarantees, among others. Financial mechanisms can include s_______ bonds, letters of credit, insurance, or guarantees, among others.

25 Financial Assurance The majority of landfills are small (less than 20 tons of municipal solid waste per day) and some may qualify for an exemption from the design standards, ground-water monitoring, and corrective action requirements. The majority of landfills are small (less than 20 tons of municipal solid waste per day) and some may qualify for an exemption from the design standards, ground-water monitoring, and corrective action requirements. To qualify for an exemption, a small landfill must not be causing ground-water contamination, and must be located in either a very dry climate or a very remote location. To qualify for an exemption, a small landfill must not be causing ground-water contamination, and must be located in either a very dry climate or a very remote location.

26 Parts of a Solid Waste Landfill:

27

28 Liner: Composite: Composite:

29 Leachate:LCRS:

30 Cell: Daily Cover: Lift: Final Lift: Final Lift:

31 Final Cover Cap

32 Post Closure


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