Content General introduction on waste Global waste management fact Good Practice of waste management (4R) Incineration technology Solid Waste Management and Recycling Technology of Japan. Where we can apply?
General Introduction waste What is waste? In general term anything which has no use No commercial value
General Introduction waste Why is waste? The use is not know It is not cost economical convert into useful form Indifferent attitude of person handling it No need of material and/or disposal is not a problem Cost of transportation The alternate material is available in ample & cheaper
General Introduction waste Types of the waste MSW : House hold items, commercial waste Hazardous waste : Industrial waste BMW : Clinical waste Special hazardous waste : Radioactive waste, Explosive waste, E-waste
General Introduction waste MSW waste classification Food & Kitchen waste. Recyclable materials such as paper, glass, plastic, metal. Domestic hazardous waste such as medical, chemical, light bulbs & batteries.
Solid Waste Management and Recycling Technology of Japan With the aim of preserving the environment in rapidly developing nations, Japan introduce waste management and recycling technologies, which effectively turn waste into resources or appropriately dispose of it. Waste Collection and Transport Technology Incineration Technology Waste Landfill Technology
Waste Collection and transport technology Kitchen waste being collected during 1950s Truck first used for garbage collection during 1950s Transferring garbage carried by rickshaw during 1950s History of Garbage Collection Trucks in Japan
Waste Collection and transport technology Technology for efficient waste transport
Waste Collection and transport technology Fuel-efficient collection and transport vehicles with high load volume Low Pollution type garbage truck It would be more efficient in many of the Asian countries to use small collection trucks of narrow roads. Many of the roads in japan, too, are narrow, and 1t to 2t compact garbage collection trucks were developed with reduced body weight in order to increase load capacity. Due to the worldwide problem of global warming, low-pollution-type garbage trucks, such as electric motor-drive trucks are being developed and put into practical use.
Incineration technology Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials. Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.
Waste landfill technology Where Does our waste Go? 2.03 Kg of waste are produced Per Person Per Day. 27% Recycled Natioally: 16% Burned57% Landfilled
Waste landfill technology What is a Landfill? The disposal of waste material by burying it, especially as a method of filling in and reclaiming excavated pits. It can also be called as “Secured Landfill”, “Engineered Landfill”, “Waste mounds”, “Waste piles” etc.
Waste landfill technology LOCATION CRITERIA: Lake or Pond : Greater than 200 Mts River : Greater than 100 Mts Highway : More than 500 Mts from highway Habitation : At least 500 Mts from habitated area Public Parks : 500 Mts far from public park Water supply : 500 Mts away from water supply well
Waste landfill technology SITE SELECTION CRITERIA : HW Landfills should preferably be located in areas of low population density, low alternative land use value, low ground water contamination potential and at sites having high clay content in the subsoil. HW Landfill will be selected by the guidelines published by MoEF
Waste landfill technology History of a Landfill Before 1960’s Most waste was burned in open dumps. produced clouds of smoke produced a bad odour Before and early 1960’s Waste burned in incinerators and combustion facilities (high temperatures burn waste more completely than in open burns) prime sources of air pollution 1960’s and 1970’s Laws passed regulating air pollution 1970’s Dumps converted to full operating landfills. 1988-2001 Number of landfills decline from 8,000 to 1,858 – because land requirement and regulations are tighter.
Waste landfill technology Simple Anatomy of a Landfill
Waste landfill technology Anatomy of a Working Landfill Daily Cover At the end of each day, waste is covered with 6-12 inches of soil. reduces odors keeps litter from blowing away deters scavengers/animals/rodents Waste Waste is compacted in layers to reduce its volume. Sand/Gravel Layer Collects leachate (liquid produced from waste) and funnels it to leachate collection pipe Leachate Pipe System Pipes collect leachate and pump it out of the landfill and to a water treatment plant or another proper method of disposal. Geomembrane – Plastic Layer A thick plastic layer lines the landfills and prevents leachate from entering the ground. The plastic is made from high-density polyethylene (HDPE) which is tough and impermeable. Clay Layer Compacted Clay is first laid in the landfill space to form a barrier to prevent leachate leaks to protect the soil and hold the trash in place. Clay is used due to its moldable and impermeability qualities.
Waste landfill technology Anatomy of a Closed Landfill Protective Cover Cover Vegetation – when landfills are full they are covered with native grasses and shrubs and used as recreation areas. Top Soil & Cover Soil – supports and maintains the growth of vegetation and protects the landfill cap.
Waste landfill technology A Landfill Cell The goal of a landfill is to cover it, isolate it, and keep it from contaminating our air and groundwater.
Waste landfill technology Landfill – Soil Top Layer At the end of every day, the waste is compacted and a layer of soil called “daily cover” is spread over it to minimize odor, prevent windblown litter.
Waste landfill technology Leachate Collection System retention pond Leachate are removed and taken to: retention pond waste water treatment plant another proper treatment facility Retention Pond
Waste landfill technology Methane Gas Collection System Methane storage tankA county technician checking on a gas collection well
Waste landfill technology An example of the electrical generation equipment in one of the Michigan Cogeneration System Plants. These engines burn only landfill gas as a fuel and operate 24 hours a day. Each engine produces 750 kw of electricity Electricity generation from methane gas