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Cendawan Entomopatogen. Insect pathogenic fungi What are they? Why study them? There is good evidence that the Chinese and Romans were aware of insect.

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Presentation on theme: "Cendawan Entomopatogen. Insect pathogenic fungi What are they? Why study them? There is good evidence that the Chinese and Romans were aware of insect."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cendawan Entomopatogen

2 Insect pathogenic fungi What are they? Why study them? There is good evidence that the Chinese and Romans were aware of insect fungi over 2000 years ago. Japanese seri culturists knew of insect diseases of silkworms over 1000 years ago Insect Fungi have been studied seriously by Western science for about 300 years Father Jose Torrubia produced this picture of dead insects developing into ‘trees’ following a visit to Cuba in 1749

3 SILKWORM CULTIVATION Diseases of silkworms are were known to the Japanese over 1000 years ago By the sixteenth and seventeenth century silkworm production in France and Italy was being ravaged by ‘muscardine’ ‘muscardine’ derives from the French word for the sugar-coated almond sweets which the mummified insect larvae resemble

4 AGOSTINO BASSI Born September 25, 1773-Italy –In 1807 he began an investigation of the silkworm disease mal de segno (commonly known as ‘muscardine’), which was causing serious economic losses in Italy – – 10 years before Louis Pasteur, Bassi found disease-causing microorganism was contagious Died February 8, 1856-Italy

5 Historical aspects Usage traced back ca years. Repoted during the Q’ing Dynasty Reaumur 1726-Paris Formally described by Berkeley as Sphaeria sinensis in 1843 Transferred to Cordyceps sinensis by Saccardo in 1870

6 Worm or plant ? Why study them? Insects fungi as herbal medicines The Insect fungi good onesbad ones EARLY WORK SAW Beauveria bassiana AS A BAD GUY WHERE, WITHIN THE FUNGAL KINGDOM ARE INSECT FUNGI FOUND?

7 ORDERS CONTAINING INVERTEBRAE FUNGI Ascomycota Hypocreales-ca spp. Eurotiales-<5 spp. Laboulbeniales-ca spp. Dothideales-<5 spp. Basidiomycota Septobasidiales-ca. 200 spp. Zygomycota Zygomycetes-ca. 250 spp. Trichomycetes-ca. 200 spp.

8 Looking close to rivers high humidity Searching the Leaf Litter How to find insect fungus and it allies Cordyceps emerging from leaf litter Insect fungi are also found under leaves

9 The Invasion Process How Fungi Get In How they kill How They Get Out Not all insect are infected by fungi fleaTse-tse fly Ticks

10 Coleoptera Diptera Hemiptera True bug AphidsHopper and cicada White fly HymenopteralepidopteraOrthopteraSpider

11 The insect cuticule The whole body surface puls the internal lining of the fore gut and the hind gut and trachea of all insect are line wih cuticule which provides a chemical and physical barrier to infection by micro-organism as well as skeletal support for muscle function

12 The insect cuticule The main componen of cuticle is chitin bound protein matrix Apart from insect chitin is produced by other invertebrates and fungi Cuticular Proteins The Glue for the chitin Types of cuticular protein include: –Anthropodin- untanned –Sclerotin-sclerotised –Resiin- rubber like

13 The invasion Process



16 Secondary conidium of Erynia conica with apresorium

17 Haemolymph Insect have an open circulatory system with a dorsal heart Haemolyph function as both as blood and lymph Blood transport nutrients/ hormones and deals with waste metabolites Blood is greeenish since there is no haemoglobin Tissue are bathed with blood Glycoprotein Present in haemolyph and other tissue Function as –Storage molecule –Enzyme –Protection for constituent monosaccharides from enzyme attack

18 Haemolymph nutrients for fungal growth Trehalose (non-reducing disaccharide of glucose) is the most dominant sugar in insect –Other trehalose using organism Bacteria Algae Fungi Nematodes Annelids Crustaceans Trehalose (is synthesised from glocise or fructose Important reserve –readily hydrolized to glucose High concentration in haemolymph range from 8-60 mg/ml depending on –Species –Developmental stage –sex

19 How does host death occur Starvation –The insect feeds but fungal takes Physical disruption of internal tissue and external tissue (prior to death) Intoxication –Fungal secondary metanolites- destruxin Auto intoxication –Insect produce toxic metabolites

20 SEM of Aschersonia Enzyme going in- muscle coming out

21 Major Groups Containing Insect Fungi Ascomycota –Hypocreales-ca sps –Eurotiales-ca. 5 spp –Laboulbeniales-ca spp –Dothideales-ca. 5 spp Basidiomycota –Septobasidiales-ca. 200 spp Zygomycota –Zygomycetes-ca. 250 spp –Trichomycetes-ca. 200 spp

22 CORDYCEPS SINENSIS (Berk) Sacc. dong chong xia cao ‘winter worm, summer-grass’ Fruiting body Caterpilar Endosclerotium of Cordyceps From Yaks and Emperors to the Populace: Now a popular herbal medicine Products of Cordyceps sinensis

23 Yearly Harvest (estimated 5000 kg US$ a kg Each stroma ca. 0.3 g Ca stromas Distribution of Cordyceps sinensis Tibet Sichuan Gansu Hubei Zhejiang Shanxi Guizou Qinghai Yunnan No Bhutan No Nepal

24 Medicinal uses of Cordyceps sinensis Fatigue Night Sweating Male and Female hyposexualities, including impotence Hyperglycemia Hyperlipidemia Asthenia after severe illness Respiratory Diseases Renal Disfunction and Renal failure Arrthymias and other heart disease Liver disease

25 Cordyceps 400+ species Anamorph: ‘Acremonium’, Akanthomyces, Beauveria, Hirsutella, Hymenostilbe, Isaria, Metharizium, Nomuraea, Polycephalomyces and Verticillium Host: Coleoptera, Diptera, Homoptera, Hymetoptera, Isoptera Lepidoptera, Neuroptera and Orthoptera

26 Temperature regime in May 2002 Night time -5 to -10C Sunrise 9 (07.00 to 08.00): -3 to 2C Late morning ( ): 12 to 22C Late afternoon (14.00 to 17.00) 2 to 5C Early evening (18.00 to 21.00): -5 to 0C

27 BIOCONTROL Is the science/art of intentionally enhancing the activity of a beneficial species to reduce the damaging effects of a pest spaces It is convenient to divide invertebrate pathogenic fungi into two broad categories General, opportunistic pathogens: –Metarhizium –Beauveria Fastidious pathogens –Most Cordyceps and the anamorphs The Many Anamorphs of Cordyceps Akanthomyces Nomuraea Beauveria Paecilomyces Desmidiospora Paraisaria Hirsutella Pochonia Hymenostilbe Polycehalomyces Isaria Sorosporella Lecanicillium Syngliocladium Microhilum Tolypocladum

28 Stromatal form in Cordyceps The Ascomata develop within or on a stroma Within-immersed On-superficial

29 Cordyceps Perithecia A. superficial B-D Pseudoimmersed E. Ordinal immersed F. Oblique immersed Ascospore G. Non disarticulating H-J Disarticulating

30 Phytocordyceps - pseudoimmersed Cordyceps on cicada ordinal imersed Cordyceps nutans oblique immersed

31 The life cycle of Cordyceps militaris Asexual Cycle Lecanicillium Infection Germination of conidia Conidiophore Stromata Sexual Cycle C. militaris Germination of ascospore ascospore ascus Somatic hypa Conidia

32 Cordyceps khaoyainensis Cordyceps iranginensis Cordyceps unilateralis ant gripping the midvein

33 Cordyceps robertsii New Zealand Maori aweto –Asma –A source of charcoal as pigment for tamocco –antibiotics Cordyceps sinensis Cordycepic acid –D-mannitol Cordycepin acid –3’-Deoxyadenosine –Cordyceps militaris Ergosterine Ergosterol Glutamic acid Fenilalanin –Viagra for women Proline Histidine Valine Oxivaline Arginine –Viagra Alanine Vitamin B12 And Polysaccharides

34 With 400 taxa, not every insect pathogen has potential Hymenostilbe ventricosa-versus cockroach CLAVICIPITACEOUS FUNGI COMMON IN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEMS Metarhizium anisopliae -wide host range Beauveria baasiana –wide host range Normuraea rileyi –exclusive to Lepidoptera Hirsutella citriformis - exclusive to hoppers Hirsutella thompsonii –exclusive to mites

35 Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anosopliae Hosts of Metarhizium in Thailand Coleoptera Lepidoptera Hemiptera –Leafhoppers –Planthoppers –Cicadas Diptera Orthoptera Araneae

36 Hypocrella Anamorph Aschersonia Host Homoptera –Aleyrodidae and Coccidae Hypocrella schizostachyi No anamorph known in the nature Pathogen can end up 1000x more massive then host

37 Torrubiella Anamorph: Akanthomyces, Gibellula, Granulomanus “Paecylomyces” Pseudogibellula Tilachlidium and Verticillium Host: Diptera, Homoptera, Hymetoptera, Lepidoptera and Spiders Akanthomyces on Spider

38 Terpenes Epichloe typhina –Cephalosporium aphidicola –Cephalosporium caerulens Paecylomyces inflatus Isaria c.f javanica Aschersonia aleyrodis Sterols Epichloe typhina Cordyceps sinensis Lecanicillium lecanii Tolypocladium koningii Tolypocladium inflatum Polycyclic Aromatics Cordyceps unilateralis –Antimalarial naphthoquinones Paecylomyces carneus –Anthrotoquinones Cordyceps pseudomilitaris –Bioxanthracenes Hypocrella bambusae –Hypocrelins Fungal Secondary Metabolic

39 Cyclosporin- Cyclicundecapeptide Cyclodepsipeptides Beauveria bassiana –Beauvericine Isaria tenuipes Isaria fumosoroseus –Insecticidal activities –Antibacterial gram + –Antifungal Destruxines Metharizium anisophliaes Aschersonia sp. –Insecticidal –Fitotoxic –Antiviral –Sitotoxic –Imunodepresan

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