Presentation on theme: "Biotic Disorders Read Chapter 10 At the end of this section students should be able to: 1) List and describe the seven major types of disease causing."— Presentation transcript:
Biotic Disorders Read Chapter 10 At the end of this section students should be able to: 1) List and describe the seven major types of disease causing organisms 2) Know what the most important disease causing agent is in North America 3) Understand and list the classification scheme for fungi, phyla, their characteristics and the types of diseases they cause 4) Understand how fungi are spread and how the life cycles influence which part of the fungus is most important
Biotic Disorders 5) Know and list the strategies for fungal survival in the forest 6) Understand the close association between fungi and host plant in native diseases 7) Describe how and why introduced diseases are so effective at killing trees 8) Describe the importance of parasitic plants in the western United States
Koch’s Postulates Robert Koch 1843-1910 Proved Bacillus anthrax was responsible for disease in animals and humans Noble Prize Winner 1905
Koch’s Postulates Proof of Pathogenicity 1)The pathogen must be associated with the disease in all the symptomatic plants examined. 2)The pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture on nutrient media and its characteristics described. 3) The pathogen in pure culture must be inoculated into healthy plants of the same species and produce the same symptoms in the diseased plants in No. 1 4) The pathogen must be re-isolated from inoculated plants and grown in pure culture again and its characteristics must be like those described in No. 2
Ascomycota – Cup Fungi Sexual reproduction = Ascospores are produced in a sac-like structure called an Ascus (Always 8 Ascospores / Ascus) –Apothecia = open –Perithecia = closed and flask shaped –Cleistothecia = closed and ornamented –Hysterthecia = closed and elongated Asexual reproduction = Conidia on a conidiphore –Synnemata (flask shaped – long) –Pycnidia (flask shaped – short) –Spordochia (cushion or padded)
Basdiomycota – Gilled fungi Sexual reproduction = Basidiospores are produced on a club-like structure called a Basidium Always 4 spores/basidia Asexual reproduction = Conidia on a conidiphore –Synnemata (flask shaped – long) –Pycnidia (flask shaped – short) –Spordochia (cushion or padded)
Deuteromycota Sexual reproduction = No known sexual state = Fungi Imperfecti Asexual reproduction = Conidia on a conidiophore –Synnemata (flask shaped – long) –Pycnidia (flask shaped – short) –Spordochia (cushion or padded)
Questions to answer 1) Why are fungi the most important disease causing organisms of the seven types of organisms that cause disease? 2) In western North America what two types of disease causing organisms are responsible for the majority of forest diseases 3) Describe the features of fungi and how they grow and reproduce 4) Describe the difference between true mistletoe and dwarf mistletoes. 5) Describe the features of bacteria and how they grow and reproduce. 6) What are viruses and viroids? Describe how they disperse and the “typical” symptoms of virus disease in plants.
7) What is a nematode? What special feature makes this organism a plant pathogen? 8) Describe how you would tell fungi in the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Oomycota, Zygomycota apart? 9) Where do the Deuteromycota fit in the classification scheme of fungi? 10) Define the terms: Disease, Signs & Symptoms. 11) What are the seven biological agents causing plant disease? 12)What are Koch’s Postulates? 13)Describe the disease triangle, the disease square and the disease tetrahedron and how they can be used to predict disease.