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Chapter 14 Fungi. Importance of Fungi Together with Heterotrophic bacteria Ecological decomposers.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Fungi. Importance of Fungi Together with Heterotrophic bacteria Ecological decomposers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Fungi

2 Importance of Fungi Together with Heterotrophic bacteria Ecological decomposers

3 Decomposing fruit- Rhizopus

4 Root-rot fungus- white mycelial causes disease in living trees Acts as decomposers on dead plants

5 Root rot Ouch!!!

6 Fungi Composed of Hyphae Heterotrophic absorbers

7 Characteristics of Fungi Composed of Hyphae Fungal filaments= “Cobwebby” strands of subterranean “white stuff” Mycelium

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9 Fungi form important symbiotic relationships 80% of all vascular plants species from mutually beneficial associations called mycorrhizae between roots and fungi Plant nutrition Lichens form symbiotic relationship with fungi, algal, or cyanobacterial cells

10 Fungi and insects Endophytes- fungi live in plants produce toxic that protect host

11 Four phyla of fungi Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota next week lecture Basidiomycota next week lecture

12 Chars of Fungi All have cell wall Cell wall composed of polysaccharide- chitin Chitin more resistant to microbial degradation than cellulose

13 All Fungi Heterotrophic Absorbers Unable to engulf small microorganisms Secrete enzymes and absorb smaller molecules Absorb food mostly at or near the growing tips of their hyphae

14 Fungi obtain their food Either as Saprophytes or As mutualistic symbionts

15 Some Obtain energy through fermenation producing ethyl alcohol from glucose (i.e. yeast)

16 Fungi Store energy Polysaccharide Glycogen Lipids

17 Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually Reproduce through the formation of spores that are produced sexually or asexually Most are nonmotile spores Some are dry and small and airborne Some are slimy and stick to the bodies of insects and other arthropods Some propel into air- phototropism

18 Common method of asexual reproduction in fungi By means of spores Either produced in sporangia –The sporangium is a saclike structure, the entire contents of which are converted into one or more spores

19 Asexual reproduction Or Hyphal cells called conidiogenous cells –Spores produced by conidiogenous cells occur singly or in chains called conidia

20 Asexual repro Some Reproduce by fragmentation of their hyphae

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22 Sexual reproduction Three distinct phases First two are phases of fertilization (syngamy) –Plasmogamy- the fusion of protoplasts –Karyogamy- the fusion of nuclei (some don’t fuse forming a dikaryon)

23 4 Divide by mitosis Give rise to gametes by differentiation gametangia Spores

24 The last phase is meiosis Sexual reproduction results in the formation of specialized spores such as zygospores, ascospores, basidiospores.

25 Zygospores Asexual and sexual reproduction (by means of haploid spores) Sexually producing zygospores require two compatible species

26 Zygomycetes: Phylum Zygomycota Live on decaying plant and animal matter in soil Some are parasites of plants, insects or small soil animals Others form symbiotic relationships- endomycorrhizea- with plants occasionally cause infection in animals Rhizopus stolonifer- best known zygomycetes

27 Life cycle of Rhizopus stolonifer

28 Gametangia the gamete producing structures are in the Process of producing a zygospore

29 Zygospore develops within the thick walled zygosporangium


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