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CIRCULATION Once food has been digested, it must be transported to the cells for them to use. This is the function of the circulatory system.

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Presentation on theme: "CIRCULATION Once food has been digested, it must be transported to the cells for them to use. This is the function of the circulatory system."— Presentation transcript:

1 CIRCULATION Once food has been digested, it must be transported to the cells for them to use. This is the function of the circulatory system.


3 The circulatory system also….. transports oxygen to the cells from the lungs.

4 WASTES…….. produced by the cells are transported out of the cells to be processed by other parts of the body. Carbon dioxide produced by respiration is transported to the lungs to be excreted. Nitrogen-containing wastes from metabolism of digested food are sent to liver and kidneys to be excreted.

5 Blood vessels also carry… Chemical messengers- also known as hormones and The products that give the body immunity- antibodies.

6 TRANSPORT Transport into and out of cells happens by diffusion.

7 HOMEOSTASIS The circulatory system maintains homeostasis by Transporting nutrients around the body Picking up wastes to be excreted Regulating body temperature Sending messages to organs that maintain blood sugar levels and amount of water in blood. Carrying products that fight infection.

8 BLOOD Made of mostly plasma, which is mostly water, And red blood cells for carrying oxygen, And white blood cells for fighting infection, (more later) And platelets to aid in clotting.

9 DISORDERS HEART ATTACK-parts of the heart muscle die STROKE(cerebral hemorrhage)-parts of the brain are damaged Saturated fats (raises cholesterol levels), high blood pressure are implicated in heart disease

10 REPAIR Rest, medication, surgery (coronary bypass, angioplasty) to stop and repair damage Physical therapy

11 PREVENTION Diets high in fiber (fruits, veggies, whole wheat), low in saturated fat (skim milk, fish) Exercise Sometimes medication is used to lower blood pressure or cholesterol levels

12 HOMEOSTASIS/Immunity A multicellular organism can maintain homeostasis easier by delegating different functions to different organ systems All organisms must maintain homeostasis to continue to survive Enzymes, to regulate the rate of reactions, and- Hormones, to transport chemical messages throughout an organism, are a few things that help maintain homeostasis

13 DISEASE Disease is considered a FAILURE OF HOMEOSTASIS Disease may be caused by a disease-causing organism, called a pathogen (virus or bacteria, for ex.) Disease may also be caused by disruption in internal processes- as in Cancer, a failure of the enzymes that control mitosis or- Some diseases are caused by failure of an organ to do its job, such as in diabetes, where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.

14 Lines of Defense/ Immunity To resist disease, the human body has a barrier of skin Openings, such as noses, contain structures to prevent invasion Anything inside is first caught and rejected, or killed by stomach acids

15 Blood/Immunity The final line of defense is in the blood-white blood cells that can engulf invaders or recycle used cells or destroy “mistakes” and- Production of antibodies that fight foreign substances

16 Lymph System In addition to circulation of blood through vessels, pumped by the heart, humans have circulation of lymph. Lymph is similar in chemical composition to plasma (no cells) and surrounds all cells in the body This system also has vessels as well as glands, but no pump Fluid moves slowly through here, allowing white blood cells and antibodies to work on foreign invaders

17 Types of Immunity Active Immunity occurs when the body makes its own antibodies This will occur from contracting the disease and recovering; OR By receiving a vaccine, which contains dead or weakened viruses This immunity may last a lifetime

18 Passive Immunity- Can produce temporary immunity by injecting antibodies into the body after one is exposed to a disease DISORDERS- Include AIDS, caused by HIV, which damages the immune system, leaving the body unable to defend itself from infections

19 Control of Homeostasis FEEDBACK maintains a constant state in the body Systems work together to monitor any changes and adjust to correct them Body temperature is maintained by communication between the brain, nervous system, and sweat glands.

20 Negative Feedback Cells in the thyroid and in the pituitary constantly monitor levels of the hormones using receptors on their plasma membranes Increase in one thing decreases the other For example, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by the pituitary Thyroid hormone is produced by the thyroid When the thyroid hormone is high enough, as determined by the pituitary, TSH is no longer produced, slowing production of thyroid hormone Low thyroid hormone causes TSH to be produced

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