Presentation on theme: "Immune System SC.912.L.14.52 Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and."— Presentation transcript:
1Immune SystemSC.912.L Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics
2-Students will identify and/or explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune responses. -Students will describe how the human immune system responds to vaccines and/or antibiotics. -Students will explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspective of both individual and public health.
3Pathogens and Human Illness Germ theory states that microscopic particles cause certain diseases.proposed by Louis Pasteurled to rapid advances in understanding diseaseKoch’s postulates support the theory.Disease-causing agents are called pathogens
4There are different types of pathogens. Bacteria are single-celled organisms.cause illness by destroying cellsrelease toxic chemicalsViruses are genetic material surrounded by a protein coat.force host cells to make more virusesvery small
5Fungi can be multicellular or single-celled. take nutrients from host cellsoccur in warm and damp placesProtozoa are single-celled organisms.use host cells to complete their life cyclestake nutrients from host cellParasites are multicellular organismsgrow and feed on a hostpossibly kill the host
6Pathogens can enter the body in different ways. Pathogens can be transferred by direct or indirect contact.Indirect contact does not require touching an infected individual.touching an infected surfacebreathing in infected air
7Vectors carry a pathogen and transmit it into healthy cells. Direct contact requires touching an infected individual. Includes:kissingsexual intercoursehand shaking
8The immune systems consists of organs, cells, and molecules that fight infections.
9Many body systems protect you from pathogens. The immune system is the body system that fights off infection and pathogens.Many other tissues and systems help the immune system.Skin is a physical barrier to infection.Mucous membranes trap pathogens entering the body.The circulatory system transports immune cells.
10Cells and proteins fight the body’s infections. White blood cells attack infections inside the body.Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens.T cells destroy infected cells.B cells produce antibodies.Three types of proteins fight off invading pathogens.Complement proteins weaken pathogen membranes.Antibodies make pathogens ineffective.Interferons prevent viruses from infecting healthy cells.
11Immunity prevents or limits a person from getting sick from a pathogen. In all immunity, pathogens are destroyed before you get sick.Passive immunity occurs without an immune response.mother’s milkgeneticsActive immunity occurs after a specific immune response
12The immune system has many responses to pathogens and foreign cells. Immune ResponseThe immune system has many responses to pathogens and foreign cells.
13Many body systems work to produce nonspecific responses. Nonspecific responses are the same for every pathogen.In inflammation, blood vessels become leaky.white blood cells move toward infection and damaged tissuecharacterized by swelling, redness, and pain
14In fever, body temperature increases. Low fevers stimulate white blood cells to mature.High fevers can cause seizure, brain damage, and even death.
15Cells of the immune system produce specific responses. Specific immune responses begin with the detection of antigens.Antigens are surface proteins on pathogens.Each pathogen has a different antigen.
16There are two specific immune responses. Cellular immunity uses T cells to destroy infected body cells.Humoral immunity uses B cells to produce antibodies.Both responses produce memory cells.specialized T and B cellsprovide acquired (active) immunity
17The immune system rejects foreign tissues. Tissue rejection occurs in organ or tissue transplants.Tissue rejection is the result of an immune response.immune system detects protein markers on the donor tissuemakes antibodies against the donor’s tissue
18Immunity and Technology Living in a clean environment and building immunity help keep a person healthy.
19Many methods are used to control pathogens. Antibiotics and antiseptics cause pathogens to burst.Antiseptics kill pathogens outside of the body.do not target specific pathogensexamples include vinegar and soapAntibiotics kill pathogens inside the body.target one specific bacterium or fungusnot effective against viruses
20Antibiotic resistance can cause medicines to become ineffective. Some bacteria in a population have genes that make them immune to antibiotics.These bacteria spread the gene, making the antibiotics useless.
21Vaccines artificially produce acquired immunity. Vaccines also control pathogens and disease.given to prevent illnesscontain the antigen of a weakened pathogen
22Vaccination provides immunity. stimulates a specific immune responsecauses memory cells to be producedallows immune system to respond quickly to infection
23Overreaction of the Immune System An overactive immune system can make the body very unhealthy.
24Allergies occur when the immune system responds to harmless antigens. An allergy is an response to a harmless antigen.Allergies are caused by allergens.Allergens are antigens that cause an allergic reaction.Allergens cause inflammation responses.
25There are many different allergens. food, e.g. peanuts, milk, wheat, etc.airborne, e.g. pollen, dust mite feces, mold, etc.chemical, e.g. nickel, medicine, bee stings, etc.Allergens can cause anaphylaxis.Anaphylaxis is an extreme inflammation response.Blood vessels and airways become too porous.If not treated immediately, anaphylaxis can cause death.
26In autoimmune diseases, white blood cells attack the body’s healthy cells. Autoimmune diseases are failures of the immune system.White blood cells cannot recognize healthy cells.White blood cells attack healthy body cells.Tissues fail because of attack.There are over 60 autoimmune diseases.