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Plant disease Plant’s normal function is interrupted by a pathogen or the environment
Plant disease Is this a disease?
Biotic damage Caused by living pathogens or parasites
Biotic damage Symptoms: visible expressions of plant reaction to the pathogen
Biotic damage Signs: indications of disease from direct visibility of a pathogen –Actually seeing the pathogen
DISEASE TRIANGLE Disease needs all three to develop –Only need to block one of them
Pathogen Organisms capable of causing disease Fungus Bacteria Virus Other micro-organisms
Pathogen Parasites: obtain food from living organisms (host)
Pathogen Obligate parasite: require (obligated to) living plant cells as food to complete life cycle
Pathogen Facultative parasite: obtain nutrition from either living or dead plants
Pathogen Saprophyte: feeds on dead organic material on plant or in soil
HOST Susceptible: no ability to retard or resist disease Susceptible plant tissue –Fertilization
HOST Resistance: some ability to retard or tolerate disease
HOST Immunity: complete resistance against disease
ENVIRONMENT Moisture and temperature are the predominant factors
ENVIRONMENT Moisture, water is critical Dry springs can reduce disease occurrence Often 24 to 48 hours continually wetness required Poor irrigation practice
ENVIRONMENT Temperature, each pathogen has optimal range Predisposed condition of host Host is stressed, can’t defend
FUNGUS The vast majority of plant diseases are fungal
FUNGUS What is a fungus? Microscopic organisms that lack chlorophyll, cannot produce own food Multicellular organism that is threadlike in composition
FUNGUS Enormous genetic variability due to rapid reproduction
FUNGUS Species of fungi are subdivided into strains that are very specific in Plant species or cultivars Virulence Temperature range Moisture requirements
SPORE Fungal seed Very distinct shape and size used to differentiate pathogens Single celled or multi-celled
SPORE Asexual, not requiring the union of sexual parts to be produced Conidia
SPORE Sexual, requiring union of sexual parts to be produced –Basidiospore, ascospore, oospore…
SPORE Where do you see spores when a plant is infected? Leaf surface –Appears as mold (powdery mildew)
SPORE Where do you see spores when a plant is infected? Fungal fruiting bodies Spore producing pockets Sporodochium, acervulus, pycnidium…
HYPHAE Hyphae is what germinates out of the spore Branches out into tubular filaments
HYPHAE Mycelium refers to all the hyphae as a whole, as the fungal body Inside the plant, or outside the plant under high moisture
PLANT INVASION Fungus enters plant through any of the following Wounds –Mechanical, pruning or handling
PLANT INVASION Wounds –Insects, vectors or egg laying
PLANT INVASION Wounds –Naturally occurring Secondary roots rupture the main root when emerging Leaf scars
PLANT INVASION Fungus enters plant through any of the following Natural openings –Lenticels
PLANT INVASION Fungus enters plant through any of the following Direct penetration –Pushing through tissue –Resistance can come in the form of thicker cuticle or hairy leaf
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Peach brown rot is used as an example
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Overwinter, Disease is dormant in infected fruit and stems
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Dissemination Disease produces spores (conidia) that are spread by wind and rain
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Inoculation Spores contact susceptible blooms
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Penetration Spore germinates and enters tissue directly
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Infection Establishes hyphae in tissue and feeds on cells
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Incubation period Time between infection and appearance of symptoms
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Invasion Spreads from bloom to other parts of the plant within tissue
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Dissemination…
FUNGAL LIFE CYCLE Overwinter When temperature cools, fungus goes dormant
Zombie Fungus http://www.h uffingtonpost.com/2011/0 9/14/zombie- caterpillars- virus_n_9622 56.html http://www.h uffingtonpost.com/2011/0 9/14/zombie- caterpillars- virus_n_9622 56.html http://www.h uffingtonpost.com/2011/0 9/14/zombie- caterpillars- virus_n_9622 56.html Brazilian rain forest Controls ants
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