AGENDA Ag Water Quality Plans Nutrient Management Plans – Options for producers
KY A GRICULTURE W ATER Q UALITY A CT 10+ acres in agriculture or forestry must develop a water quality plan Anyone applying for cost share needs a water quality plan Kentucky Soil Erosion and Water Quality Cost Share Program (State cost share) NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) GOAP County Ag Investment Program (CAIP)
Monitor soil fertility, so that crop needs are met while minimizing the loss of nutrients. Provide the crop with the correct amount of nutrients at the optimum time and location possible so they are utilized efficiently. Limit the amount of plant nutrients lost to leaching, runoff, volatilization. L IVESTOCK BMP #11/C ROPS BMP #14
AWQP M INIMUM R EQUIREMENTS Comply with NRCS Code 590 (2001) unless required by federal program participation, which requires NRCS Code 590 (2013). Manage manure in a manner that prevents degradation of water, soil, air, and that protects public health and safety. Sufficient land must be available for a disposal area without overloading soils or exceeding crop requirements. Minimize edge-of-field delivery of nutrients where no setbacks are required.
N UTRIENT M ANAGEMENT Who needs what? KY NRCS 590-based CNMPs are for: – Those AFOs that produce animal waste. They do not necessarily have to land apply it Example: Some poultry operations produce and export all the litter – Operations receiving technical assistance and/or cost share from NRCS for nutrient management or require practices to manage animal waste. *Can be used to obtain a KY Division of Water permit (KNDOP) KY NRCS 590-based NMPs are for: – Land application of commercial fertilizers, and other nutrient sources that are not produced on the farm – Receiving technical assistance and/or cost share from NRCS for nutrient management or apply inorganic or organic fertilizers and don’t have livestock Who writes these? NRCS Technical Service Providers (TSPs) write CNMPs NRCS employees can write NMPs
B OTTOM LINE The KY NRCS 590-based CNMP is very complicated to develop. As a result, the AWQA has added another option for developing NMPs – KY producers can still use the NRCS code 590 (2001) practice standard. – Meanwhile we are working on the KyNMP document.
N UTRIENT M ANAGEMENT Who needs what? KyNMP – Need a nutrient management plan to comply with the KY Ag Water Quality Act – Need an FSA loan *Can be used to obtain a KY Division of Water permit (KNDOP) Who could write these? Producers can write their own, fee-for-service planners, Conservation District Employees, etc.
Phosphorus Threshold STPInterpretation < 400 Manure applications can be made based on crop nitrogen requirements 401-600 Phosphorus applications at rates not to exceed the estimated removal of phosphorus in the harvested plant biomass 601-800 Phosphorus applications at rates not to exceed 1 / 2 of the estimated removal of phosphorus in the harvested plant biomass >800Phosphorus applications are no longer allowed K Y NMP (2013) Recent Soil Sample collected within the Last Year
K Y NMP R ECOMMENDED S ETBACKS Liquid Manure OperationsDry Manure Operations SETBACK FEATURE (1) Barn or Lagoon Land Application Distance Barn and/or Manure Storage Structure (Facilities) Land Applicatio n Distance Injection/ IncorporationOther Method Lake, river, blue-line stream, conduit to surface waters, or karst feature150 feet35 a or 75 feet50 a or 100 feet150 feet 35 a or 75 feet Water well not owned by applicant (2) 300 feet75 a or 150 feet 300 feet 50 a or 100 feet (1) Measured from the edge of the barn, lagoon, or land application area to the nearest edge of the setback feature. (2) Existing at the time the first animal feeding operation permit is issued. (a) Utilizing one or more of the following BMPs: Vegetative or forest buffer, cover crops, no-till, contouring, terracing.
S PRING BEST time to spread manure – Will lose less N and have the most nutrients available for plant growth Do not apply to cool-season forages in Spring – Could increase N loss and weed competition
S UMMER Greatest risk of N loss through ammonia volatilization Warm-season hay Bermudagrass and Sudangrass
F ALL Cool-season pasture and hay fields benefit from Fall applications of manure Nutrient removal is low – STP testing to avoid going over P threshold Cover crops Manure should not be applied in Fall on fields without a cover crop
W INTER Application opportunities are limited Storage capacity should be large enough to hold until Spring Manure should not be applied in Winter on fields without a cover crop Do NOT apply to snow covered or frozen fields
S UMMARY Similar concept as in 590 (2001/2013) – Inventory nutrients available (manures) – Determine crop needs – Distribute nutrients so that crop needs are met without overloading soils Producer can write his/her own plan Benefit = better understanding of their operation and nutrient management concepts Adaptive management can improve efficiency, production, and economic returns
Phosphorus Threshold STPInterpretation < 400 Manure applications can be made based on crop nitrogen requirements 400-800 Phosphorus applications at rates not to exceed the estimated removal of phosphorus in the harvested plant biomass 800-1066 Phosphorus applications at rates not to exceed 1 / 2 of the estimated removal of phosphorus in the harvested plant biomass >1066Phosphorus applications are no longer allowed O LD 590 (2001)
County Field Stream New Phosphorus Index P Index Estimates Average Annual P Delivery Tillage Rotation crops and yields Manure Applications P Fertilizer Applications Downfield Slope to Surface Water Distance to Surface Water County Soil Test P and Organic Matter Field Slope Field Slope Length Soil Type Contour and filter practices Kentucky Nitrogen and Phosphorus Index Proposed release date: January, 2013
New P-Index risk score if field is 30 feet from water body Scenario: Corn silage 22 Tons; Winter wheat 55 Bushels Dry dairy manure 25 Tons/acre applied, incorporated