2Presentation AidsObjects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, and multimedia used in the context of a speech.Help students see relationships among concepts, store and remember material, and critically examine key ideas.
3Seeing (and Hearing) Is Believing Audiovisual aids can enhance understanding and retention of concepts.Facts and concepts are more likely to be learned if they are accompanied by visual cues.Audiovisual aids should be relevant to the speech topic.
4Types of Presentation Aids The SpeakerThe speaker sometimes becomes a visual aid when an explanation requires modeling.Physical movementClothing
5Types of Presentation Aids Props and modelsA prop can be any live or inanimate object that captures audience attention and emphasizes key points.A model is a three-dimensional scale-size representation of an object.
6Types of Presentation Aids Pictures (photographs, drawings, diagrams, maps, posters)Picture: two-dimensional representation of people, places, ideas, or objects produced on an opaque backing.Diagram: explains how something works or how it is constructed or operated.
7Types of Presentation Aids Pictures (photographs, drawings, diagrams, maps, posters)Map: a representation of a whole or a part of an area on a flat surface.Poster: A large, bold, two-dimensional design incorporating words, shapes, and if desired, color, placed on an opaque backing.
8Types of Presentation Aids Graphs and ChartsGraph: represents numerical data in visual form.Line graph: displays one measurement, usually plotted on the horizontal axis, and units of measurement or values, plotted on the vertical axis.Bar graph: uses bars of varying lengths to compare quantities or magnitudes.
9Types of Presentation Aids Graphs and ChartsPie graph: depicts the division of a whole. The pie, which represents 100 percent, is divided into portions or segments called slices. Each slice constitutes a percentage of the whole.Pictogram: shows a comparison in picture form.
10Types of Presentation Aids Graphs and ChartsChart: visually organizes complex information into compact form.Flowchart: a diagram that shows step-by-step progression through a procedure, a relationship, or a process.Organizational Chart: illustrates the organizational structure or chain of command in an organization.
11Types of Presentation Aids Graphs and ChartsTable: a systematic grouping of data or numerical information in column form.Note: tables are not truly graphic, because they are not really pictures. However, even if they lack visual appeal they often present valuable data.
12Types of Presentation Aids Audio and VideoAudio Clip: a short recording of sounds, music, or speech. Introducing sound into a speech can add interest, illustrate ideas, and incorporate humor.
13Types of Presentation Aids Audio and VideoVideo: including movie, television, and other recording instruments, can be a powerful presentation aid that combines, sight, sound, and movement to illustrate key concepts.
14Types of Presentation Aids MultimediaMultimedia combines several media (stills, sound, video, text, and data) into a single production. The idea is that the more senses evoked, the more memorable the event will be.
15Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Overhead TransparenciesOverhead transparency (also called an overhead acetate): an image on a transparent background that can be viewed by transmitted light, either directly or through projection onto a screen or wall.
16Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Overhead TransparenciesOverhead projection is flexible. Material may be added to or taken away during the presentation. This makes the overhead a good choice for presentations that require multiple visual aids.
17Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Computer-Generated Graphics and DisplayWith software programs such as Microsoft’s PowerPoint, speakers can create slides and transparencies on the computer.Speakers can project these graphics directly from a computer or transfer images to overhead transparencies.
18Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Computer-Generated Graphics and DisplayLCD: stands for liquid crystal diode.LCD panel: a square, thin box that sits on top of an overhead projector and connects to a computer. It contains a screen on which images appear.
19Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Computer-Generated Graphics and DisplayLCD projector: comes with an illumination or light source, eliminating the need for an overhead projector.Video projector: connects to a computer and projects a sharp, clear image as large as twenty-five feet long.
20Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Flip ChartsFlip Chart: a large pad of paper on which a speaker can draw visual aids. As you progress through the speech, you simply flip through the pad to the next exhibit.One of the most inexpensive ways of displaying presentation aids.
21Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid ChalkboardsChalkboard: A black (or blue or green) board on which you can write with chalk (or a marker if the board chalkless type).Chalkboards are useful for impromptu explanations.
22Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid HandoutsHandout: page-sized items that convey information that is either impractical to give to the audience in another manner, or is intended to be kept by audience members after the speech.
23Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid HandoutsTo avoid distracting your listeners, wait until you are done speaking to distribute handouts unless you specifically want them to read the information as you speak.
24Designing Presentation Aids SimplicityPresentation aids that try to communicate too many messages will quickly overwhelm the audience.Visual aids should reinforce, support, or summarize what you say, not repeat verbatim what you’ve already said.
25Designing Presentation Aids ContinuityThe principle of continuity dictates that you apply the same design decisions you make for one aid to all of the aids you display in a speech.
26Designing Presentation Aids ContinuityTo help maintain continuity, your choice of any key design elements--colors, fonts, upper and lowercase letters, styling (boldface, underlining, italics)--should be carried through to each aid.
27Designing Presentation Aids Typeface Style And Font SizeTypeface: a specific style of lettering, such as Arial, Times Roman, or Courier.Fonts: sets of sizes (called the point size) and upper and lower cases.Serif typefaces: include small flourishes, or strokes, at the tops and bottoms of each letter.
28Designing Presentation Aids Typeface Style And Font SizeSans Serif typefaces: block like and linear; they are designed without these tiny strokes.Most text for on-screen projection should be a minimum of 18 points or larger. Titles or major headings should be 36 points
29Designing Presentation Aids Typeface Style And Font SizeCheck that your lettering stands apart from your background.Use a typeface that is simple, easy to read, and doesn’t distract from your message.Don’t overuse boldface, underlining or italics. Use upper-and lowercase type.
30Designing Presentation Aids ColorUse bold, bright colors to emphasize important points.Use softer, lighter colors to de-emphasize less important areas of a presentation.Keep the background color of your presentation constant, and avoid dark backgrounds.
31Designing Presentation Aids ColorFor typeface and graphics, use colors that contrast rather than clash with the background color.Use no more than four colors in each graphic; two or three are even better.
32A How-To Guide for Using Microsoft PowerPoint as a Presentation Aid
33How-To Guide to PowerPoint This guide offers straightforward advice that will help you use Microsoft PowerPoint to create effective and enjoyable presentations.
34You don’t want your slides to look like this: Colors on the slide are distractingTitle too smallTexts overlap and have strange formattingFont is small and hard to readClip art is too large; only one piece is necessary
35Let’s Begin! PowerPoint is a Microsoft application. If you are proficient in programs such as Word and Excel, you are already familiar with over 100 common commands used by Microsoft Office software.
36Let’s Begin!NOTE: All of the icons, example buttons, and toolbars shown in this slide show are taken from the PC version of PowerPoint. The Macintosh version is similar, yet slightly different.
37To Use PowerPoint Become familiar with the toolbars Select your presentation optionLearn how to create a slideLearn how to organize design elementsLearn how to balance design elements
38Learning the Toolbars Menu bar Format-ting toolbar View buttons Standard toolbarView buttonsDrawing toolbarCommon tasks toolbar
39Learning the Toolbars The Menu bar The Standard toolbar The View toolbarThe Drawing toolbarThe Formatting toolbarThe Common Tasks toolbar
40Learning the ToolbarsThe Menu bar contains the commands for which shortcuts exist on the toolbars.For instance, under File you can find the option to Save your presentation, which is also available on the Standard toolbar.In the Formatting menu, you can click on Alignment and change the flow of text on your screen. You can also click one of the alignment icons on the Formatting toolbar to perform the same task.
41Learning the ToolbarsThe Standard toolbar contains a number of useful shortcuts:New presentationOpen a new or existing presentationSavePrintSpelling
42Learning the ToolbarsThe Standard toolbar also includes a number of other shortcut features:Insert a Microsoft Word TableInsert a Microsoft Excel TableInsert a ChartInsert Clip ArtThe Office Wizard. When you click this and type a question, it will search the Help index for possible answer.
43Learning the ToolbarsThe View toolbar gives different options for viewing slides:Slide View: shows slides one by oneOutline View: shows an outline of all slide textSlide Sorter View: places all the slides on one screen in slide formatNote Pages View: allows you to add and read notes below each slideSlide Show: allows you to see the presentation
44Learning the Toolbars The Drawing toolbar gives shortcuts to: AutoShapes: draw lines, arrows, rectangles, and ovals; access the AutoShapes menuText boxes: draw these where you wish to add text on a blank slide or add text to an existing slideLine color, font color, and fill color options, with menusDash style and 3-D optionsThe Draw button presents a menu of other ways to manipulate your text and clip art, including rotation, alignment, and alterations to AutoShapes.
45Learning the Toolbars The Formatting toolbar allows you to: Change fontChange font sizeAdd boldface, italics, underlining, and shading to textCreate animation effectsChange paragraph alignment
46Learning the ToolbarsThe New Slide button inserts a new slide directly following the slide currently being viewed.The Slide Layout button gives choices of layouts for different pre-designed text box and clip art formations.The Apply Design button gives pre-designed slide aesthetic options.
47Learning the ToolbarsFinally, on the View menu you can choose which toolbars are available at any give time:Click ViewScroll down to ToolbarsSelect or deselect your preferences
48Select Presentation Option When PowerPoint launches you will see the screen above.Here you select how you would like to create your presentation.
49Select Presentation Option The AutoContent Wizard is useful for those who are unfamiliar with PowerPoint or who need extra help.It sets up an index of slides with preloaded titles, points, subpoints, and designs.
50Select Presentation Option The Template option provides moderate flexibility in designing presentations.You choose from 28 templates to organize your points, subpoints, and design.
51Select Presentation Option The Blank Presentation option offers the most flexibility.Users customize every aspect of the design for each individual slide.The following slides will teach you how to work from Blank Presentation.
52How to Create a SlideClick New Slide to select a layout for the title slide.To change the color of the slide either right-click it and select Slide Color Scheme or select Format and then Slide Color Scheme from the Menu bar.
53How to Create a SlideYou choose the color scheme and format of the slide, and if you wish you can also apply these choices to all of the following slides.You can change the color scheme of one or all of your slides at any time.
54How to Create a SlideTo change the order of the slides, first select Slide Sorter View ( ) from the View toolbar. You can move slides by cutting and pasting or dragging and droppingTo delete a slide, either click on it while in Slide Sorter View or go to it in Slide View ( ), then select Edit from the Menu bar and click on Delete Slide.
55Organizing Design Elements TextClip art and picturesAnimation effectsBalancing the elements
56Organizing TextAs you can see from this slide, text boxes can be put anywhere.Click on the icon on the Drawing toolbar.With the cursor, draw the approximate size you need for your text.
57Organizing TextYou can expand the box to include more text or make it smaller to make room for other design elements on the slide.The pre-designed selections from the Slide Layout screen offer the most logical and often-used layouts.
58Organizing TextUse a readable font and font size for each different aspect of the page (a good size range is between points).Be consistent from slide to slide with fonts and font sizes.Choose colors that will ensure that your text is readable and your slides do not appear distracting.
59Organizing Text Don’t use too many different fonts. DON’T USE ALL CAPS.Avoid fonts that are distracting:BraggadocioOzHandicraft BTShelley Volante BT
60Organizing TextDon’t include your entire speech on the slides. Instead highlight important points.To determine what information is best to include in your presentation, you should:Review your speech outline.Identify points that can be illustrated, such as key terms and their definitions, statistics, or charts and graphs.
61Organizing Clip Art and Pictures To insert clip art onto your slide you can:Select a slide layout that has a set space for clip art. When working on that slide, simply double-click on the clip art space and it will take you to the Microsoft Clip Gallery.Use the Insert menu, click Picture, and then select Clip Art.Click on the shortcut icon:
62Organizing Clip Art and Pictures To insert your own photos or graphics rather than ones from the gallery, click Insert, scroll to Picture, and select From File.Here you can browse your computer and choose art from your own files.
63Organizing Clip Art and Pictures If you cannot find what you need in the gallery or your own resources, you have another option. Downloads of more images are available free from Microsoft via the Internet.In the gallery, click on the icon in the bottom right corner.Search by key word to find what you need.
64Organizing Clip Art and Pictures PowerPoint can incorporate graphs and charts as well.On the Standard toolbar, there are shortcuts for inserting Microsoft Word tables and Microsoft Excel worksheets and graphsChange the numbers and labels on the graphs or charts to fit your information.
65Organizing Clip Art and Pictures Remember: use clip art, pictures, charts, and graphs only to illustrate points, not as fillers.
66Organizing Animation Effects PowerPoint has a variety of different ways that text and art can be animated.For example:AppearSpiralFly from Bottom-LeftBlinds VerticalStretch from TopZoom InWipe RightBox OutDissolveCrawl from RightPeek from BottomCheckerboard Across
67Organizing Animation Effects These effects can be interesting additions to your presentation, but they can also be distracting. Use them sparingly to add emphasis.To animate, right-click on the text or image and select Custom Animation from the menu.Select the effect you want to use, determine the order of the animations on the slide, and make sure to preview.
68Organizing Animation Effects Take time while in this screen to determine how your animation effects will appear.Clicking on the Timing menu gives you options so that your textboxes, clip art, and other animation elements can be presented on a mouse click, automatically, or automatically after a preset length of time.
69Balancing the Elements Even if you follow all the suggestions for setting up your slide and its elements, you still may find that your presentation is hard to follow.It is important to go back through your completed presentation and make sure that the overall experience of watching it is pleasant as well as educational.
70Balancing the Elements Defining a balanced slide may seem like a matter of opinion, but there are concrete criteria, including:Clip art and text must fit together well. No element -- title, points, graphics -- should overpower the others.Headings should be consistent in size and placement. They should be large and clear.The audience should be able to understand each slide quickly and easily.
71Example of a Balanced Slide The title is large and clear.Text is easy to read and well sized.The clip art illustrates the slide and is well placed on the layout.Good use of contrasting colors on slide and in font.
72Example of an Unbalanced Slide Title and color scheme are still fine.Text is too small.Clip art is too large.This slide is hard to read and places unnecessary emphasis on the artwork.
73Balancing the Elements If you are unsure whether your slide is well balanced, ask a friend or your instructor if they find your presentation easy to follow, and easy on the eye.
74Giving Your Presentation Make sure you have practiced giving your speech while using your PowerPoint presentation.It may be helpful to make notes on your cue cards or outline indicating when to move from one slide to the next.Time yourself giving your speech with the presentation. Make sure that you are within your assigned time limit.
75Giving Your Presentation In case of technical problems, be prepared to give your speech without your PowerPoint presentation.Consider making printouts of your presentation to give your classmates in case of technical problems.
76Giving Your Presentation To keep your audience from becoming distracted, you should also use blank slides when you are done with one slide and not yet ready for the next one.Consider this as you practice your speech with the presentation. Insert blank slides where you are speaking about something that departs from the contents on the slide.