Presentation Aids Objects, models, pictures, graphs, charts, video, audio, and multimedia used in the context of a speech. Help students see relationships among concepts, store and remember material, and critically examine key ideas.
Seeing (and Hearing) Is Believing Audiovisual aids can enhance understanding and retention of concepts. Facts and concepts are more likely to be learned if they are accompanied by visual cues. Audiovisual aids should be relevant to the speech topic.
Types of Presentation Aids The speaker sometimes becomes a visual aid when an explanation requires modeling. –Physical movement –Clothing The Speaker
Types of Presentation Aids A prop can be any live or inanimate object that captures audience attention and emphasizes key points. A model is a three-dimensional scale- size representation of an object. Props and models
Types of Presentation Aids Picture: two-dimensional representation of people, places, ideas, or objects produced on an opaque backing. Diagram: explains how something works or how it is constructed or operated. Pictures (photographs, drawings, diagrams, maps, posters)
Map: a representation of a whole or a part of an area on a flat surface. Poster: A large, bold, two-dimensional design incorporating words, shapes, and if desired, color, placed on an opaque backing. Types of Presentation Aids Pictures (photographs, drawings, diagrams, maps, posters)
Types of Presentation Aids Graph: represents numerical data in visual form. –Line graph: displays one measurement, usually plotted on the horizontal axis, and units of measurement or values, plotted on the vertical axis. –Bar graph: uses bars of varying lengths to compare quantities or magnitudes. Graphs and Charts
–Pie graph: depicts the division of a whole. The pie, which represents 100 percent, is divided into portions or segments called slices. Each slice constitutes a percentage of the whole. –Pictogram: shows a comparison in picture form. Types of Presentation Aids
Chart: visually organizes complex information into compact form. –Flowchart: a diagram that shows step- by-step progression through a procedure, a relationship, or a process. –Organizational Chart: illustrates the organizational structure or chain of command in an organization. Graphs and Charts
Types of Presentation Aids –Table: a systematic grouping of data or numerical information in column form. –Note: tables are not truly graphic, because they are not really pictures. However, even if they lack visual appeal they often present valuable data. Graphs and Charts
Types of Presentation Aids Audio Clip: a short recording of sounds, music, or speech. Introducing sound into a speech can add interest, illustrate ideas, and incorporate humor. Audio and Video
Types of Presentation Aids Video: including movie, television, and other recording instruments, can be a powerful presentation aid that combines, sight, sound, and movement to illustrate key concepts. Audio and Video
Types of Presentation Aids Multimedia combines several media (stills, sound, video, text, and data) into a single production. The idea is that the more senses evoked, the more memorable the event will be. Multimedia
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Overhead transparency (also called an overhead acetate): an image on a transparent background that can be viewed by transmitted light, either directly or through projection onto a screen or wall. Overhead Transparencies
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Overhead projection is flexible. Material may be added to or taken away during the presentation. This makes the overhead a good choice for presentations that require multiple visual aids. Overhead Transparencies
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid With software programs such as Microsoft’s PowerPoint, speakers can create slides and transparencies on the computer. Speakers can project these graphics directly from a computer or transfer images to overhead transparencies. Computer-Generated Graphics and Display
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid LCD: stands for liquid crystal diode. LCD panel: a square, thin box that sits on top of an overhead projector and connects to a computer. It contains a screen on which images appear. Computer-Generated Graphics and Display
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid LCD projector: comes with an illumination or light source, eliminating the need for an overhead projector. Video projector: connects to a computer and projects a sharp, clear image as large as twenty-five feet long. Computer-Generated Graphics and Display
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Flip Chart: a large pad of paper on which a speaker can draw visual aids. As you progress through the speech, you simply flip through the pad to the next exhibit. One of the most inexpensive ways of displaying presentation aids. Flip Charts
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Chalkboard: A black (or blue or green) board on which you can write with chalk (or a marker if the board chalkless type). Chalkboards are useful for impromptu explanations. Chalkboards
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid Handout: page-sized items that convey information that is either impractical to give to the audience in another manner, or is intended to be kept by audience members after the speech. Handouts
Options For Displaying The Presentation Aid To avoid distracting your listeners, wait until you are done speaking to distribute handouts unless you specifically want them to read the information as you speak. Handouts
Designing Presentation Aids Presentation aids that try to communicate too many messages will quickly overwhelm the audience. Visual aids should reinforce, support, or summarize what you say, not repeat verbatim what you’ve already said. Simplicity
Designing Presentation Aids The principle of continuity dictates that you apply the same design decisions you make for one aid to all of the aids you display in a speech. Continuity
Designing Presentation Aids Continuity To help maintain continuity, your choice of any key design elements-- colors, fonts, upper and lowercase letters, styling (boldface, underlining, italics)--should be carried through to each aid.
Designing Presentation Aids Typeface: a specific style of lettering, such as Arial, Times Roman, or Courier. Fonts: sets of sizes (called the point size) and upper and lower cases. Serif typefaces: include small flourishes, or strokes, at the tops and bottoms of each letter. Typeface Style And Font Size
Designing Presentation Aids Sans Serif typefaces: block like and linear; they are designed without these tiny strokes. Most text for on-screen projection should be a minimum of 18 points or larger. Titles or major headings should be 36 points Typeface Style And Font Size
Designing Presentation Aids Check that your lettering stands apart from your background. Use a typeface that is simple, easy to read, and doesn’t distract from your message. Don’t overuse boldface, underlining or italics. Use upper-and lowercase type. Typeface Style And Font Size
Designing Presentation Aids Use bold, bright colors to emphasize important points. Use softer, lighter colors to de- emphasize less important areas of a presentation. Keep the background color of your presentation constant, and avoid dark backgrounds. Color
Designing Presentation Aids For typeface and graphics, use colors that contrast rather than clash with the background color. Use no more than four colors in each graphic; two or three are even better. Color
A How-To Guide for Using Microsoft PowerPoint as a Presentation Aid
How-To Guide to PowerPoint This guide offers straightforward advice that will help you use Microsoft PowerPoint to create effective and enjoyable presentations.
You don’t want your slides to look like this: Title too small Font is small and hard to read Texts overlap and have strange formatting Clip art is too large; only one piece is necessary Colors on the slide are distracting
Let’s Begin! PowerPoint is a Microsoft application. If you are proficient in programs such as Word and Excel, you are already familiar with over 100 common commands used by Microsoft Office software.
Let’s Begin! NOTE: All of the icons, example buttons, and toolbars shown in this slide show are taken from the PC version of PowerPoint. The Macintosh version is similar, yet slightly different.
To Use PowerPoint Become familiar with the toolbars Select your presentation option Learn how to create a slide Learn how to organize design elements Learn how to balance design elements
Learning the Toolbars View buttons Common tasks toolbar Format- ting toolbar Menu bar Standard toolbar Drawing toolbar
Learning the Toolbars The Menu bar The Standard toolbar The View toolbar The Drawing toolbar The Formatting toolbar The Common Tasks toolbar
Learning the Toolbars The Menu bar contains the commands for which shortcuts exist on the toolbars. For instance, under File you can find the option to Save your presentation, which is also available on the Standard toolbar. In the Formatting menu, you can click on Alignment and change the flow of text on your screen. You can also click one of the alignment icons on the Formatting toolbar to perform the same task.
Learning the Toolbars The Standard toolbar contains a number of useful shortcuts: New presentation Open a new or existing presentation Save Print Spelling
Learning the Toolbars The Standard toolbar also includes a number of other shortcut features: Insert a Microsoft Word Table Insert a Microsoft Excel Table Insert a Chart Insert Clip Art The Office Wizard. When you click this and type a question, it will search the Help index for possible answer.
Learning the Toolbars The View toolbar gives different options for viewing slides: Slide View: shows slides one by one Outline View: shows an outline of all slide text Slide Sorter View: places all the slides on one screen in slide format Note Pages View: allows you to add and read notes below each slide Slide Show: allows you to see the presentation
Learning the Toolbars The Drawing toolbar gives shortcuts to: AutoShapes: draw lines, arrows, rectangles, and ovals; access the AutoShapes menu Text boxes: draw these where you wish to add text on a blank slide or add text to an existing slide Line color, font color, and fill color options, with menus Dash style and 3-D options The Draw button presents a menu of other ways to manipulate your text and clip art, including rotation, alignment, and alterations to AutoShapes.
Learning the Toolbars The Formatting toolbar allows you to: Change font Change font size Add boldface, italics, underlining, and shading to text Create animation effects Change paragraph alignment
Learning the Toolbars The New Slide button inserts a new slide directly following the slide currently being viewed. The Slide Layout button gives choices of layouts for different pre-designed text box and clip art formations. The Apply Design button gives pre-designed slide aesthetic options.
Learning the Toolbars Finally, on the View menu you can choose which toolbars are available at any give time: Click View Scroll down to Toolbars Select or deselect your preferences
Select Presentation Option When PowerPoint launches you will see the screen above. Here you select how you would like to create your presentation.
Select Presentation Option The AutoContent Wizard is useful for those who are unfamiliar with PowerPoint or who need extra help. It sets up an index of slides with preloaded titles, points, subpoints, and designs.
Select Presentation Option The Template option provides moderate flexibility in designing presentations. You choose from 28 templates to organize your points, subpoints, and design.
Select Presentation Option The Blank Presentation option offers the most flexibility. Users customize every aspect of the design for each individual slide. The following slides will teach you how to work from Blank Presentation.
How to Create a Slide Click New Slide to select a layout for the title slide. To change the color of the slide either right-click it and select Slide Color Scheme or select Format and then Slide Color Scheme from the Menu bar.
How to Create a Slide You choose the color scheme and format of the slide, and if you wish you can also apply these choices to all of the following slides. You can change the color scheme of one or all of your slides at any time.
How to Create a Slide To change the order of the slides, first select Slide Sorter View ( ) from the View toolbar. You can move slides by cutting and pasting or dragging and dropping To delete a slide, either click on it while in Slide Sorter View or go to it in Slide View ( ), then select Edit from the Menu bar and click on Delete Slide.
Organizing Design Elements Text Clip art and pictures Animation effects Balancing the elements
Organizing Text As you can see from this slide, text boxes can be put anywhere. Click on the icon on the Drawing toolbar. With the cursor, draw the approximate size you need for your text.
Organizing Text You can expand the box to include more text or make it smaller to make room for other design elements on the slide. The pre- designed selections from the Slide Layout screen offer the most logical and often-used layouts.
Organizing Text Use a readable font and font size for each different aspect of the page (a good size range is between 20-60 points). Be consistent from slide to slide with fonts and font sizes. Choose colors that will ensure that your text is readable and your slides do not appear distracting.
Organizing Text Don’t use too many different fonts. DON’T USE ALL CAPS. Avoid fonts that are distracting: –Braggadocio –OzHandicraft BT –Shelley Volante BT
Organizing Text Don’t include your entire speech on the slides. Instead highlight important points. To determine what information is best to include in your presentation, you should: Review your speech outline. Identify points that can be illustrated, such as key terms and their definitions, statistics, or charts and graphs.
Organizing Clip Art and Pictures To insert clip art onto your slide you can: Select a slide layout that has a set space for clip art. When working on that slide, simply double-click on the clip art space and it will take you to the Microsoft Clip Gallery. Use the Insert menu, click Picture, and then select Clip Art. Click on the shortcut icon:
Organizing Clip Art and Pictures To insert your own photos or graphics rather than ones from the gallery, click Insert, scroll to Picture, and select From File. Here you can browse your computer and choose art from your own files.
Organizing Clip Art and Pictures If you cannot find what you need in the gallery or your own resources, you have another option. Downloads of more images are available free from Microsoft via the Internet. In the gallery, click on the icon in the bottom right corner. Search by key word to find what you need.
Organizing Clip Art and Pictures PowerPoint can incorporate graphs and charts as well. On the Standard toolbar, there are shortcuts for inserting Microsoft Word tables and Microsoft Excel worksheets and graphs. Change the numbers and labels on the graphs or charts to fit your information.
Organizing Clip Art and Pictures Remember: use clip art, pictures, charts, and graphs only to illustrate points, not as fillers.
Organizing Animation Effects PowerPoint has a variety of different ways that text and art can be animated. For example: Blinds Vertical Fly from Bottom-Left Box Out Spiral Checkerboard Across Crawl from Right Dissolve Peek from Bottom Stretch from Top Appear Wipe Right Zoom In
Organizing Animation Effects These effects can be interesting additions to your presentation, but they can also be distracting. Use them sparingly to add emphasis. To animate, right-click on the text or image and select Custom Animation from the menu. Select the effect you want to use, determine the order of the animations on the slide, and make sure to preview.
Organizing Animation Effects Take time while in this screen to determine how your animation effects will appear. Clicking on the Timing menu gives you options so that your textboxes, clip art, and other animation elements can be presented on a mouse click, automatically, or automatically after a preset length of time.
Balancing the Elements Even if you follow all the suggestions for setting up your slide and its elements, you still may find that your presentation is hard to follow. It is important to go back through your completed presentation and make sure that the overall experience of watching it is pleasant as well as educational.
Balancing the Elements Defining a balanced slide may seem like a matter of opinion, but there are concrete criteria, including: Clip art and text must fit together well. No element -- title, points, graphics -- should overpower the others. Headings should be consistent in size and placement. They should be large and clear. The audience should be able to understand each slide quickly and easily.
The clip art illustrates the slide and is well placed on the layout. Example of a Balanced Slide The title is large and clear. Good use of contrasting colors on slide and in font. Text is easy to read and well sized.
Example of an Unbalanced Slide Title and color scheme are still fine. Text is too small. Clip art is too large. This slide is hard to read and places unnecessary emphasis on the artwork.
Balancing the Elements If you are unsure whether your slide is well balanced, ask a friend or your instructor if they find your presentation easy to follow, and easy on the eye.
Giving Your Presentation Make sure you have practiced giving your speech while using your PowerPoint presentation. It may be helpful to make notes on your cue cards or outline indicating when to move from one slide to the next. Time yourself giving your speech with the presentation. Make sure that you are within your assigned time limit.
Giving Your Presentation In case of technical problems, be prepared to give your speech without your PowerPoint presentation. Consider making printouts of your presentation to give your classmates in case of technical problems.
Giving Your Presentation To keep your audience from becoming distracted, you should also use blank slides when you are done with one slide and not yet ready for the next one. Consider this as you practice your speech with the presentation. Insert blank slides where you are speaking about something that departs from the contents on the slide.