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E MOTIONAL D EVELOPMENT  Exploring Emotions  Development of Emotion  Temperament  Attachment and Love.

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Presentation on theme: "E MOTIONAL D EVELOPMENT  Exploring Emotions  Development of Emotion  Temperament  Attachment and Love."— Presentation transcript:

1 E MOTIONAL D EVELOPMENT  Exploring Emotions  Development of Emotion  Temperament  Attachment and Love

2 W HAT A RE E MOTIONS ? Feeling or affect in a state or interaction characterized by: Behavioral expression Conscious experience Physiological arousal Functionalist View of Emotion: Individuals’ attempts to adapt to specific contextual demands Relational Linked with an individual’s goals Nature of goal can affect experience Exploring Emotions

3 D EVELOPING E MOTIONAL R EGULATION Exploring Emotions As one ages or matures: Regulation shifts from external sources to internal resources. Cognitive strategies for regulation and ability to shift focus increase. Ability to effectively cope with stress increases. Develop greater capacity to modulate emotional arousal. More adept with age at selecting and managing situations, relationships.

4 D EVELOPMENT OF E MOTION Development of Emotion Early emotions: Present in humans and other animals Appear in first six months of life Surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust Self-conscious emotions: Appear in first 18 months to 2 years Acquire and use society’s standards and rules Empathy, jealousy, and embarrassment

5 I NFANT C RYING Development of Emotion Basic cry: Rhythmic pattern usually consisting of cry, briefer silence, shorter inspiratory whistle, and brief rest. Anger cry: Similar to basic cry, linked to exasperation or rage, with more excess air forced through vocal chords. Pain cry: Sudden appearance of loud crying, no preliminary moaning; stimulated by high-intensity stimulus.

6 I NFANT S MILING Reflexive smile: Does not occur in response to external stimuli. Occurs during first month after birth, usually during sleep. Social smile: Response to external stimulus. Occurs about 2 or 3 months of age. Typically in response to a face. Development of Emotion

7 F EAR First appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos. Stranger anxiety — infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; intense between 9 and 12 mos. Separation protest — crying when caregiver leaves; peaks about 15 months of age Development of Emotion

8 E ARLY C HILDHOOD Young children experience many emotions Self-Conscious Emotions Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt First appear about age 18 months Ability to reflect on emotions increases with age Development of Emotion

9 D EVELOPMENTAL C HANGES I N E MOTIONS D URING M IDDLE AND L ATE C HILDHOOD Development of Emotion Increased emotional understanding Increased tendency to take fuller account of events leading to emotional reactions Develops capacity for genuine empathy Marked improvements in ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings

10 A DOLESCENCE Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly. Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation: Girls more vulnerable to depression Adolescent moodiness is normal Hormonal changes and environmental experiences involved in changing emotions Development of Emotion

11 C HANGES IN P OSITIVE & N EGATIVE E MOTION A CROSS THE A DULT Y EARS Development of Emotion

12 S OCIOEMOTIONAL S ELECTIVITY T HEORY Older adults become more selective about their social networks: Place a high value on emotional satisfaction and maximize positive emotional experiences Spend more time with familiar individuals providing rewarding relationships Seek more emotion-related goals than knowledge-related goals Development of Emotion

13 M ODEL OF S OCIO - EMOTIONAL S ELECTIVITY Development of Emotion

14 T EMPERAMENT Easy child : Positive mood; quickly establishes routines; adapts easily to new experiences. Difficult child : Reacts negatively; cries frequently; has irregular routines; slow to accept new experiences. Slow-to-warm-up child : Low activity level; somewhat negative; shows low adaptability; displays low-intensity mood. Temperament

15 D EVELOPMENTAL C ONNECTIONS Temperament ChildAdult Easy temperamentGood adjustment Difficult temperament Adjustment, school, and marital problems Inhibition Low assertiveness, job and school delays Good emotional control

16 T HEORIES OF A TTACHMENT Attachment — close emotional bond between two people Social orientation and understanding- Face-to-face play for infants and caregivers Locomotion enables infant independence Goal-directed behaviors indicate intentions Social referencing for reading emotional cues Freud — infants attach to person or object providing oral satisfaction Harlow’s study proved otherwise Erikson — first year of life is key time for attachment development Sense of trust or mistrust sets later expectations Bowlby — stresses importance of attachment in first year and responsiveness of caregiver Attachment and Love

17 I NDIVIDUAL D IFFERENCES AND THE S TRANGE S ITUATION Ainsworth’s measure of infant attachment to caregiver: Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions Some infants have more positive attachments than others Attachment and Love Baby’s AttachmentCaregiver Behavior Secure Sensitive to signals, available Avoidant Unavailable or rejecting Resistant Inconsistent Disorganized Neglect or physically abuse

18 A TTACHMENT C ATEGORIES Attachment and Love Insecure disorganized Securely attached Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant Shows insecurity by being disorganized, disoriented Caregiver is secure base to explore environment from Shows insecurity by avoiding the caregiver Clings to caregiver, then resists by fighting against the closeness

19 C HILD C ARE Many parents worry about child’s care. About 2 million children currently receive formal, licensed child care. More than 5 million children in kindergarten. Types of child care vary extensively in U.S. Five types of parental leave from work Maternity leave Paternity leave Parental leave Child-rearing leave Family leave Attachment and Love

20 V ARIATIONS IN C HILD C ARE Factors influencing effects of child care: Age of child Type of child care Quality of program Mother’s employment in first year may have negative effect Types vary by ethnicity and social class National longitudinal study results: Patterns of use: infants placed sooner Quality of care: lower for low-income families Amount of child care: extensive time lessened attachment sensitivity to mother, more behavioral issues Family and parenting influences are important Attachment and Love

21 A DOLESCENCE Attachment to parents: Secure attachment to both parents positively related to peer and friendship relations Dismissing/avoidant attachment : de-emphasize importance due to caregiver rejection Preoccupied/ambivalent attachment : insecure adolescent due to inconsistent parenting Unresolved/disorganized attachment : insecure adolescent, high fear due to traumatic experiences Attachment and Love

22 D ATING AND R OMANTIC R ELATIONSHIPS Dating scripts: Cognitive models that guide dating interactions Males are proactive, females are reactive Males seek physical attraction, females seek interpersonal qualities Dating involvement linked to later adjustment Attachment and Love

23 A GE OF O NSET OF R OMANTIC A CTIVITY

24 R OMANTIC L OVE Also called passionate love or Eros: Complex intermingling of emotions. Strong components of sexuality and infatuation. Often predominates early part of a love relationship. Affectionate love or companionate love: Have deep, caring affection for person. Attachment and Love

25 S TERNBERG ’ S T RIARCHIC T HEORY OF L OVE Passion: physical, sexual attraction Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing Commitment: intent to remain together Attachment and Love


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