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Emotional Development

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Presentation on theme: "Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Emotional Development
Exploring Emotions Development of Emotion Temperament Attachment and Love

2 Exploring Emotions What Are Emotions? Feeling or affect in a state or interaction characterized by: Behavioral expression Conscious experience Physiological arousal Functionalist View of Emotion: Individuals’ attempts to adapt to specific contextual demands Relational Linked with an individual’s goals Nature of goal can affect experience

3 Developing Emotional Regulation
Exploring Emotions Developing Emotional Regulation As one ages or matures: Regulation shifts from external sources to internal resources. Cognitive strategies for regulation and ability to shift focus increase. Ability to effectively cope with stress increases. Develop greater capacity to modulate emotional arousal. More adept with age at selecting and managing situations, relationships.

4 Development of Emotion
Early emotions: Present in humans and other animals Appear in first six months of life Surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust Self-conscious emotions: Appear in first 18 months to 2 years Acquire and use society’s standards and rules Empathy, jealousy, and embarrassment

5 Infant Crying Basic cry:
Development of Emotion Infant Crying Basic cry: Rhythmic pattern usually consisting of cry, briefer silence, shorter inspiratory whistle, and brief rest. Anger cry: Similar to basic cry, linked to exasperation or rage, with more excess air forced through vocal chords. Pain cry: Sudden appearance of loud crying, no preliminary moaning; stimulated by high-intensity stimulus.

6 Infant Smiling Reflexive smile:
Development of Emotion Infant Smiling Reflexive smile: Does not occur in response to external stimuli. Occurs during first month after birth, usually during sleep. Social smile: Response to external stimulus. Occurs about 2 or 3 months of age. Typically in response to a face.

7 Fear First appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos.
Development of Emotion Fear First appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos. Stranger anxiety — infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; intense between 9 and 12 mos. Separation protest — crying when caregiver leaves; peaks about 15 months of age

8 Early Childhood Young children experience many emotions
Development of Emotion Early Childhood Young children experience many emotions Self-Conscious Emotions Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt First appear about age 18 months Ability to reflect on emotions increases with age

9 Developmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late Childhood
Development of Emotion Developmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late Childhood Increased emotional understanding Increased tendency to take fuller account of events leading to emotional reactions Develops capacity for genuine empathy Marked improvements in ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions Use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings

10 Adolescence Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly.
Development of Emotion Adolescence Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly. Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation: Girls more vulnerable to depression Adolescent moodiness is normal Hormonal changes and environmental experiences involved in changing emotions

11 Changes in Positive & Negative Emotion Across the Adult Years
Development of Emotion Changes in Positive & Negative Emotion Across the Adult Years

12 Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
Development of Emotion Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Older adults become more selective about their social networks: Place a high value on emotional satisfaction and maximize positive emotional experiences Spend more time with familiar individuals providing rewarding relationships Seek more emotion-related goals than knowledge-related goals

13 Model of Socio-emotional Selectivity
Development of Emotion Model of Socio-emotional Selectivity

14 Temperament Temperament Easy child: Positive mood; quickly establishes routines; adapts easily to new experiences. Difficult child: Reacts negatively; cries frequently; has irregular routines; slow to accept new experiences. Slow-to-warm-up child: Low activity level; somewhat negative; shows low adaptability; displays low-intensity mood.

15 Developmental Connections
Temperament Developmental Connections Child Adult Easy temperament Good adjustment Difficult temperament Adjustment, school, and marital problems Inhibition Low assertiveness, job and school delays Good emotional control

16 Theories of Attachment
Attachment and Love Theories of Attachment Attachment — close emotional bond between two people Social orientation and understanding- Face-to-face play for infants and caregivers Locomotion enables infant independence Goal-directed behaviors indicate intentions Social referencing for reading emotional cues Freud — infants attach to person or object providing oral satisfaction Harlow’s study proved otherwise Erikson — first year of life is key time for attachment development Sense of trust or mistrust sets later expectations Bowlby — stresses importance of attachment in first year and responsiveness of caregiver

17 Individual Differences and the Strange Situation
Attachment and Love Individual Differences and the Strange Situation Ainsworth’s measure of infant attachment to caregiver: Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions Some infants have more positive attachments than others Baby’s Attachment Caregiver Behavior Secure Sensitive to signals, available Avoidant Unavailable or rejecting Resistant Inconsistent Disorganized Neglect or physically abuse

18 Attachment Categories
Attachment and Love Attachment Categories Caregiver is secure base to explore environment from Securely attached Shows insecurity by avoiding the caregiver Insecure avoidant Clings to caregiver, then resists by fighting against the closeness Insecure resistant Shows insecurity by being disorganized, disoriented Insecure disorganized

19 Child Care Many parents worry about child’s care.
Attachment and Love Child Care Many parents worry about child’s care. About 2 million children currently receive formal, licensed child care. More than 5 million children in kindergarten. Types of child care vary extensively in U.S. Five types of parental leave from work Maternity leave Paternity leave Parental leave Child-rearing leave Family leave

20 Variations in Child Care
Attachment and Love Variations in Child Care Factors influencing effects of child care: Age of child Type of child care Quality of program Mother’s employment in first year may have negative effect Types vary by ethnicity and social class National longitudinal study results: Patterns of use: infants placed sooner Quality of care: lower for low-income families Amount of child care: extensive time lessened attachment sensitivity to mother, more behavioral issues Family and parenting influences are important

21 Adolescence Attachment to parents:
Attachment and Love Adolescence Attachment to parents: Secure attachment to both parents positively related to peer and friendship relations Dismissing/avoidant attachment: de-emphasize importance due to caregiver rejection Preoccupied/ambivalent attachment: insecure adolescent due to inconsistent parenting Unresolved/disorganized attachment: insecure adolescent, high fear due to traumatic experiences

22 Dating and Romantic Relationships
Attachment and Love Dating and Romantic Relationships Dating scripts: Cognitive models that guide dating interactions Males are proactive, females are reactive Males seek physical attraction, females seek interpersonal qualities Dating involvement linked to later adjustment

23 Age of Onset of Romantic Activity

24 Romantic Love Also called passionate love or Eros:
Attachment and Love Romantic Love Also called passionate love or Eros: Complex intermingling of emotions. Strong components of sexuality and infatuation. Often predominates early part of a love relationship. Affectionate love or companionate love: Have deep, caring affection for person.

25 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Love
Attachment and Love Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Love Passion: physical, sexual attraction Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing Commitment: intent to remain together

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