Presentation on theme: "Emotional Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Emotional Development Exploring EmotionsDevelopment of EmotionTemperamentAttachment and Love
2Exploring EmotionsWhat Are Emotions?Feeling or affect in a state or interaction characterized by:Behavioral expressionConscious experiencePhysiological arousalFunctionalist View of Emotion:Individuals’ attempts to adapt to specific contextual demandsRelationalLinked with an individual’s goalsNature of goal can affect experience
3Developing Emotional Regulation Exploring EmotionsDeveloping Emotional RegulationAs one ages or matures:Regulation shifts from external sources to internal resources.Cognitive strategies for regulation and ability to shift focus increase.Ability to effectively cope with stress increases.Develop greater capacity to modulate emotional arousal.More adept with age at selecting and managing situations, relationships.
4Development of Emotion Early emotions:Present in humans and other animalsAppear in first six months of lifeSurprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgustSelf-conscious emotions:Appear in first 18 months to 2 yearsAcquire and use society’s standards and rulesEmpathy, jealousy, and embarrassment
5Infant Crying Basic cry: Development of EmotionInfant CryingBasic cry:Rhythmic pattern usually consisting of cry, briefer silence, shorter inspiratory whistle, and brief rest.Anger cry:Similar to basic cry, linked to exasperation or rage, with more excess air forced through vocal chords.Pain cry:Sudden appearance of loud crying, no preliminary moaning; stimulated by high-intensity stimulus.
6Infant Smiling Reflexive smile: Development of EmotionInfant SmilingReflexive smile:Does not occur in response to external stimuli.Occurs during first month after birth, usually during sleep.Social smile:Response to external stimulus.Occurs about 2 or 3 months of age.Typically in response to a face.
7Fear First appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos. Development of EmotionFearFirst appears about 6 mos.; peaks at 18 mos.Stranger anxiety — infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; intense between 9 and 12 mos.Separation protest — crying when caregiver leaves; peaks about 15 months of age
8Early Childhood Young children experience many emotions Development of EmotionEarly ChildhoodYoung children experience many emotionsSelf-Conscious EmotionsPride, shame, embarrassment, and guiltFirst appear about age 18 monthsAbility to reflect on emotions increases with age
9Developmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late Childhood Development of EmotionDevelopmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late ChildhoodIncreased emotional understandingIncreased tendency to take fuller account of events leading to emotional reactionsDevelops capacity for genuine empathyMarked improvements in ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactionsUse of self-initiated strategies for redirecting feelings
10Adolescence Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly. Development of EmotionAdolescenceTime of emotional turmoil but not constantly.Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation:Girls more vulnerable to depressionAdolescent moodiness is normalHormonal changes and environmentalexperiences involved in changingemotions
11Changes in Positive & Negative Emotion Across the Adult Years Development of EmotionChanges in Positive & Negative Emotion Across the Adult Years
12Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Development of EmotionSocioemotional Selectivity TheoryOlder adults become more selective about their social networks:Place a high value on emotional satisfaction and maximize positive emotional experiencesSpend more time with familiar individuals providing rewarding relationshipsSeek more emotion-related goals than knowledge-related goals
13Model of Socio-emotional Selectivity Development of EmotionModel of Socio-emotional Selectivity
14TemperamentTemperamentEasy child: Positive mood; quickly establishes routines; adapts easily to new experiences.Difficult child: Reacts negatively; cries frequently; has irregular routines; slow to accept new experiences.Slow-to-warm-up child: Low activity level; somewhat negative; shows low adaptability; displays low-intensity mood.
15Developmental Connections TemperamentDevelopmental ConnectionsChildAdultEasy temperamentGood adjustmentDifficult temperamentAdjustment, school, and marital problemsInhibitionLow assertiveness, job and school delaysGood emotional control
16Theories of Attachment Attachment and LoveTheories of AttachmentAttachment — close emotional bond between two peopleSocial orientation and understanding-Face-to-face play for infants and caregiversLocomotion enables infant independenceGoal-directed behaviors indicate intentionsSocial referencing for reading emotional cuesFreud — infants attach to person or object providing oral satisfactionHarlow’s study proved otherwiseErikson — first year of life is key time for attachment developmentSense of trust or mistrust sets later expectationsBowlby — stresses importance of attachment in first year and responsiveness of caregiver
17Individual Differences and the Strange Situation Attachment and LoveIndividual Differences and the Strange SituationAinsworth’s measure of infant attachment to caregiver:Requires infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunionsSome infants have more positive attachments than othersBaby’s AttachmentCaregiver BehaviorSecureSensitive to signals, availableAvoidantUnavailable or rejectingResistantInconsistentDisorganizedNeglect or physically abuse
18Attachment Categories Attachment and LoveAttachment CategoriesCaregiver is secure base to explore environment fromSecurely attachedShows insecurity by avoiding the caregiverInsecure avoidantClings to caregiver, then resists by fighting against the closenessInsecure resistantShows insecurity by being disorganized, disorientedInsecure disorganized
19Child Care Many parents worry about child’s care. Attachment and LoveChild CareMany parents worry about child’s care.About 2 million children currently receive formal, licensed child care.More than 5 million children in kindergarten.Types of child care vary extensively in U.S.Five types of parental leave from workMaternity leavePaternity leaveParental leaveChild-rearing leaveFamily leave
20Variations in Child Care Attachment and LoveVariations in Child CareFactors influencing effects of child care:Age of childType of child careQuality of programMother’s employment in first year may have negative effectTypes vary by ethnicity and social classNational longitudinal study results:Patterns of use: infants placed soonerQuality of care: lower for low-income familiesAmount of child care: extensive time lessened attachment sensitivity to mother, more behavioral issuesFamily and parenting influences are important
21Adolescence Attachment to parents: Attachment and LoveAdolescenceAttachment to parents:Secure attachment to both parents positively related to peer and friendship relationsDismissing/avoidant attachment: de-emphasize importance due to caregiver rejectionPreoccupied/ambivalent attachment: insecure adolescent due to inconsistent parentingUnresolved/disorganized attachment: insecure adolescent, high fear due to traumatic experiences
22Dating and Romantic Relationships Attachment and LoveDating and Romantic RelationshipsDating scripts:Cognitive models that guide dating interactionsMales are proactive, females are reactiveMales seek physical attraction, females seek interpersonal qualitiesDating involvement linked to later adjustment
24Romantic Love Also called passionate love or Eros: Attachment and LoveRomantic LoveAlso called passionate love or Eros:Complex intermingling of emotions.Strong components of sexuality and infatuation.Often predominates early part of a love relationship.Affectionate love or companionate love:Have deep, caring affection for person.
25Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Love Attachment and LoveSternberg’s Triarchic Theory of LovePassion: physical, sexual attractionIntimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharingCommitment: intent to remain together