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Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G Office hours: Tu 12-1:30 and by apt. Class: T 1:30-4:20 Room 2210.

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Presentation on theme: "Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G Office hours: Tu 12-1:30 and by apt. Class: T 1:30-4:20 Room 2210."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G Office hours: Tu 12-1:30 and by apt. Class: T 1:30-4:20 Room 2210

2 Moving Onto the Last Section… In this class, we’re covering development in three different sections – Physical based lifespan development – Cognitive based lifespan development – Socioemotional based lifespan development

3 Socioemotional Processes Emotional Development Personality and Identity Development Sexuality and Gender Identity Development Moral and Spiritual Development

4 Today’s Topic: Emotions and Development Emotion – a psychophysiological state of mind resulting from an interaction between an individual and their internal/external environment – Critical in social interaction and the formation and severance of bonds – Can be positive or negative in valence – Manifests in a variety of forms (joy, fear, sadness, etc.) – Exists in a variety of arousal levels (subtle  strong) – Impacts and relates to physiological levels of arousal – Often changes behavior but behaviors can also change emotions

5 The Nature and Nurture of Emotions Emotions seem to be something that’s ingrained within our biology – Brain regions dedicated to emotions Amygdala, frontal lobe, and hippocampus – Physiological systems that directly react to various emotions Vagus nerve Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

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7 The Nature and Nurture of Emotions Emotions also appear to be impacted by the social world – Findings with infant behavior and adult interaction – Cultural studies on displays of and regulation of emotions – A side note on cultural research on emotions…

8 Goldberg’s Discrete Emotions Approach In order to test the biological inevitability of emotions psychologists argue that these emotions need to meet specific criteria Should emerge early in life, before one has had much experience Should be similar across cultures (i.e. universal) Should have its own biological signature, and perhaps facial expression

9 How Do We “Develop” Emotions Our range of emotional expression Our recognition of emotions – Within ourselves – Within others Our ability to control our emotions Our regulation of our emotion-related behaviors Our ability to recognize the impact of our emotions and emotion-related behaviors – Our own – Others

10 Emotional Development Across the Lifespan Infancy – Primary emotions – the six basic emotions appear to be in tact at birth Joy, anger, sadness, fear, surprise, and disgust – Self-conscious emotions – emotions that require self- awareness. These develop between ages 1 and 2 Empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt – Emotional attachments also begin to form

11 Expressing Emotions As An Infant Infant emotional output is dominated by two discrete emotion behaviors – Crying – an expression of sadness or discontent that an infant naturally expresses at birth Basic cry – rhythmic pattern of crying that usually displays basic needs (hunger, exhaustion, fatigue) Anger cry – basic cry with more air passed through the lungs Pain cry – loud cry mixed with holding of breath – Smiling – an expression of happiness or content that an infant naturally expresses at birth Reflexive smile – uncontrolled reflex that exists at birth Social smile – results from stimuli or social anticipation; develops greater frequency and complexity with age

12 Emotional Abilities in Infancy Limited range of emotional expression Minimal recognition of emotions within themselves Little to no recognition of emotions in others Little to no ability to control emotions Little to no ability to regulate emotion-related behaviors No ability to recognize the impact of emotions and emotion-related behaviors on others

13 Emotional Development Across the Lifespan Childhood – Greater complexity in emotions (self-conscious emotions) – Greater recognition of situations that might incur emotions – Better recognition of emotions in others – Slightly better control of emotions and emotional reactions Delay of Gratification Study – Experience of stressors can be controlled, but excessive stress at this stage can cause emotional problems in adolescence and beyond

14 Emotional Development Across the Lifespan Adolescence – Increases in emotional range – Increase in negative emotions Physiological cause Social factor causes – Recognition of emotions within themselves – Some ability to recognize emotions in others – Limited ability to control emotions – Little ability to regulate emotion-related behaviors – Growing recognition of the impact of emotion-related behaviors on others

15 Emotional Development Across the Lifespan Adulthood – A large range of emotional skills and complexity exist across adults EQ – As we age, most people tend to pursue social environments that produce more stable and positive emotional states Socioemotional selectivity theory – as we age, we select social networks that are more positive and spend more time with familiar individuals

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17 Looking Closer at Individual Differences Temperament – an individual’s behavioral style and way of responding with respect to emotions Temperament in childhood (Chess and Thomas) – Easy child – positive reactions, adapts routines, and adapts to new experiences – Difficult child – negative reactions, irregular routines, slow to adapt to new experiences – Slow-to-warm-up child – low activity, and minimal (somewhat negative) reactions – Undefined child – fits none of the qualifications

18 The Impact of Early Temperament Temperament in childhood and adulthood can be measured in three dimensions (Rothbart and Bates) – Extraversion/surgency – positive interaction, anticipation, and sensation seeking – Negative affectivity – proclivity for negative responses and distress – Self regulation – ability to recognize emotions and soothing abilities to regulate emotions It can also be described as inhibited or uninhibited – video Childhood temperament often carries over into adulthood – A continuation of Mischel’s delay of gratification work

19 Where Does Temperament Come From? Biology – Studies with amygdala activity and temperament – Sibling studies (heritability) Environment – Activity level studies (4 years  21 years) – Cultural studies on temperament – Parenting studies and “goodness of fit”

20 Other Developments of Emotion and Temperament Gaze following Theory of mind Social referencing – the ability to detect the emotion of others and other cues in order to determine how to appropriately act in a situation Attachment – the ability to form an emotional bond between individuals – Harry Harlow’s work in the importance of physical comfort (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hs A5Sec6dAI)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hs A5Sec6dAI

21 Attachment Differences in Infants Mary Ainsworth’s work with the “strange situation” – – Securely attached – close attachment to primary caregiver, stressed when caregiver leaves, and relieved when caregiver returns (over 50%) – Insecure avoidant attached – weak attachment to primary caregiver, unbothered when caregiver leaves, and uncaring when caregiver returns – Insecure resistant attached – close but tumultuous relationship with primary caregiver, upset when caregiver leaves, and angry when caregiver returns – Insecure disorganized – fearful in all conditions Linked to parenting styles Long-term implications?

22 Attachment in Later Years In adolescence, our attachment types and their manifestations undergo a slight change – Objects of attachment and attachment types with extend beyond the parents/primary caregiver – New classifications of attachment types emerge Secure-autonomous (securely attached) Dismissing-avoidant attachment (insecure-avoidant) Preoccupied-ambivalent attachment – attachment seeking mixed with anger and conflict Unresolved-disorganized attachment – fear based attachment seeking – Attachment types predict a number of health related behaviors (sexual activity, drug use, etc.)

23 Attachment in Adulthood Attachment styles in adulthood closely resemble those that we see in infancy – Secure – Anxious – Avoidant Securely attached individuals tend to describe securely attached upbringings, but longitudinal studies don’t show as much correlation Traumatic and difficult experiences in life are usually much better predictors of adult attachment than childhood attachment styles Attachment styles are fairly consistent once we reach adulthood, but can occasionally change

24 Reviewing Emotions and Attachment Our emotions, our temperament, and our attachment styles are constantly evolving over time As we grow, we become more complex in this area As we age, we also become more set in our emotional, temperamental, and attachment styles/abilities Two good predictors of these three at adulthood are the three at a younger age and stressful/traumatic experiences

25 Onto the Next Class… In the next class we’ll look at personality and identity development (chapter 11) Try to read the chapter before we meet at that time


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